Voronezh today is one of the largest industrial, transport, distribution, scientific and cultural centers of Russia. There are few historical sights in the city. The city has little to show curious tourists. Nevertheless if you are a guest of Voronezh, go for a walk about the city. It is not impossible that you’ll like it.
City (Pervomaisky) park
It was laid out in 1840 between present P.Engels and Pheoktistov streets. The garden was fenced in brick wall, constructed with bays in cross-form, and the main entrance was underscored with four brick poles, imitating fortress towers with battlements. In the garden there were many small constructions: a restaurant, a summer theater for 600 persons, bowling-alleys and billiard room, a rotunda for brass band and koumiss house. The garden was a beloved walking place for citizens.
Municipal holidays and activities, beneficent lotteries, exhibitions used to be held here, and in winter people made an ice-rink. Since that time, in the course of the history the garden has changed.
All the constructions burned down during the Great Patriotic War, the stone railing was exchanged into a refined metallic one in 1950… At present time the city garden keeps its former rectangular configuration. Diagonally it is crossed by alleys, leading to the corner entrances. Maples of the beginning of XX century have been preserved in the main alley. Blagoveschensky cathedral has been building along the axis of the garden since 1999.
Monument to A.V.KoltsovIt stands in the park, naving after the great Russian poet, a native of Voronezh, A.V.Koltsov. It was opened in 1868 by initiative of the poet’s sister A.V.Andronova. It with the monument to Peter I is the oldest monument in the city. It was made of white Carrara marble by Petersburg sculpture Avgustin Triskorni. Money for its erection was collected by subscription. The monument represents a small bust, erected on the complex high pedestal. According to classicism traditions the poet’s appearance corresponds to antique patterns.
The monument to Peter I
It is located in the middle of Petrovsky park, face to the avenue. It is the first monument which was erected in 1860 on public donations. The common plan of the monument belonged to D.I.Grimm, was realized by sculpture A.E.Shvarts (1818-1892). Planning of the square and the picture of the pedestal were mede by architecture A.A.Kui. The bronze monument was founded in Petersburg; the pedestal is made of red granite, which was brought from Pavlovsky uyezd of Voronezh government. During the occupation of Voronezh in 1942 the bronze statue was taken out in Germany for remelt.
In 1956 the monument was recommenced in the same pedestal. The author is a Moscow sculpture N.P.Gavrilov, who restored the monument by photos and descriptions, held its height and composition. Some details were changed, in particular, Peter I is represented young, as he used to come for building the fleet in Voronezh, and not in mature age, as initially.
Petrovsky parkIt occupies a rectangular lot at the intersection of Revolution avenue and Stepan Razin street. A bronze statue of Peter I was erected at the slope to the river, in the square, which acquired name Petrovskaya in 1860, and a small park was laid out around it. Last time Petrovsky park was reconstructed in 1985.
The rectangular platform has a small slope to the river direction. The monument to Peter I is situated in the center. Paths radiate form it. The transverse axis is accentuated by a fountain, behind which a staircase began. A small fence is faced with granite. Cannons are placed along its eastern side. Maple, chestnuts, lack pine grow in the park.
Voronezh little theater
The theater is relatively young, it was opened on June, 1994, but status of theater quite quickly reached the high level. Michael Bitchkov devised and established the theater. For Voronezh, and on the whole for Russia, it was a new model of the theater in many respects. Principles of permanent repertoire theater and contracted artistic and production relations. It the first years of its existence the little theater stage only classical literature: Pushkin, Lermontov, Dostoevsky, Tchekhov, Nabokov, Vertinsky and the best plays of XX century: Pinter, Ionesko, Platonov, Vampilov, Bergman, Bashevis Zinger.
In recent years the repertoire of the little theater begins to include modern authors – Gishkovets, Ugarov, Bugadze, Durnenkov, Makdonakh. The theater took part in festival “New drama”. Michael Bitchkov became its laureate in nomination “the best work of the producer”. At the same time the playbill includes also new plays – Tchekhov, Bairon.
In Voronezh the little theater quickly found its public. The hall for 100 persons has attracted a capacity crowd already for more than 10 years, despite the fact that cost of tickets for the plays of the little theater is three-four times higher than in other theaters of the city. On average the little theater plays about 150 plays a year. The troupe of the theater consists of 10 actors. As it is necessary the theater invites for separate roles actors from other theaters. Plays of many Voronezh Little theater producers were participants of prestige theater competitions, and some of them became laureates of Prize named after K.S.Stanislavsky.
Voronezh regional museum of art named after I.N.KramskoiThe house, in which the museum is located, us so beautiful and imposing that resembles a palace – this work of 1777-1779 was made in baroque style by the project of government architect I.A.Potapov (1722-1791, governor in 1775-1791). Only in 1933 the palace became a museum. At present time Voronezh regional museum of art named after I.N.Kramskoi has the unique collection of Ancient Egypt, antiquity, Russian and west-european painting of 18-20 centuries, icons, graphic arts, arts and crafts, sculptures, pictures of famous compatriots – I.N.Kramskoi, A.A.Butchkuri, E.A.Kiseleva, works of modern Voronezh artists. The museum fund numbers over 20,000 articles. The museum held such interesting exhibitions as anniversary, dedicating to the creative work of I.N.Kramskoi, the exhibition of Old Russian art from museum “Kolomenskoe”, the exhibition of Russian china from museum “Kuskovo”, the personal exhibition of I.S.Glazunov.
Being the large cultural center of Voronezh and the region, the museum of art always helps libraries, museums, schools, institutes of higher educations in studying art. Experts of the museum make excursions, read lectures, arrange exhibitions, publish catalogues.
Orthodox Temples of Voronezh
Alexeevsky monasteryThe monastery was named after saint Alexiy, the metropolitan of Moscow (1300-1378). He ruled the Russian church since 1354 under the great princes Ivan Ivanovitch and Demetrius Donskoy. In these years “the process of tormented feuds and Russian lands, impaired by the Mongol-Tatar invasion.” By their activity metropolitan Alexiy and his famous compatriot, saint Sergiy Radonezhsky, who became counsellors of Moscow great princes favored consolidation of Russia and its liberation from the yoke. While alive Alexiy became famous as wonder-worker. The history of the Alexeevsky monastery began in 1620 and is only several decades younger than Voronezh itself.
Blagoveschensky cathedralThis temple, dedicating to Annunciation, - is one of the first Temples in Voronezh land. It was built about in 1620. The first Blagoveschensky temple was wooden and often undergone fires, it was rebuilt and even changed its location many times. In 1682 under the first bishop of Voronezh saint bishop Mitrophan Blagoveschensky temple became Metropolitan Cathedral. On April, 19, 1684 in reply to the application of saint bishop Mitrophan His Holiness Ioakim Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia gave his blessing to erection of the stone metropolitan cathedral in honor of Annunciation, which was built in 1690. In 1703 after death of saint bishop Mitrophan his honourable relics were buried in the Metropolitan Cathedral. The residence of Ruling Eparchs since 1682 and Voronezh Ecclesiastical Seminary, established by bishop Pheophilakt, from 1745 to 1822 were situated in the town church. And in 1834 archbishop of the Voronezh Church Antoniy suggested establishing Blagoveschensky Mitrophanov monastery attached to Blagoveschensky cathedral with keeping the place in it for staying the head of the Voronezh eparchy. The inauguration of the monastery was carried out on September, 1, 1836. Metropolitan Cathedral became Svato-troitsky cathedral and Blagoveschensky cathedral remained the most important center of spiritual life of the city and eparchy.
After the revolution Blagoveschensky cathedral and Mitrophanov monastery repeated the fate of many orthodox temples. At first they were closed and in 50-s – destroyed. The head building of the Voronezh State University is situated in the place of the Cathedral and the monastery. Revival of Blagoveschensky Metropolitan Cathedral began in 1998 on the initiative of Most Reverend Father of God Mephodiy, Metropolitan of Voronezh and Lipetsk in Pervomaisky garden in commemoration of 2000-anniversary of the Nativity of Christ. The new cathedral is a link, connecting our present day with the glorious pages of the eparchy history. The cathedral will be consecrated as the old one, in honor of Annunciation and its façade resembles Vladimir Cathedral of the city, which was erected in honor of 900-anniversary of the Baptism of Russia.
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