Vologda - is one of the oldest Russian towns, which was mentioned in source of information in 1147 year. The town got its name from the name of rive, on picturesque banks of which was created the town. One more version of town's name origin is a word «volok», as people from Novgorod moved their boats into the river Sukhna.. From its creation Vologda was considered simultaneously as the gates on north, and as a cordon, having protected Moscow against foreign invasion conquerors.
By order of Ivan the Terrible in 1568 was begun the Kremlin construction, inside of which was placed Sophisky Cathedral. Ivan the Terrible wanted to create its own residence, and tried to turn Vologda in capital, but time changed tsar's plan. In 1612 year the town was captured by Poles and Lithuanians, demolished and all population was killed. But in time of Romanov governing, was reconstructed new town's stronghold.
In XVI – XVIII cent. the town was placed on two banks of Vologda river. It consists of the Kremlin and three trading quarters: the Upper, the Lower and Over the river. The Kremlin was military, administrative and trade center and uyezd. In XVII – XVIII cent. through the town was carried out foreign commerce of Moscow government with west countries.
Peter the Great was also in Vologda. By governing of Peter the Great became one of main military base in the country. There were kept technical and military equipments for building strongholds and military ships. A lot of ships were built at the town, in order to deliver food in Arkhangelsk.
By the decision of Catherine II in 1780 year Vologda became the center of Vologda.
Its historical look, which is characterized for Vologda in present time, the town got in XIX. Stone and wooden detached houses are harmonious decorated the town. Vologda include in the number of Russian cities, which has a special significance of historical heritage.
The main pride of the town is the Vologda Kremlin. In the part of the Kremlin complex includes the late Archiereysky yard, thanks to its high wall fortifications, and Voskresensky cathedral and Sophiyskaya bell tower (constructions of XVII-XIX cent.). On the territory of the Kremlin there are a lot of monument of wooden architecture.
Constructions, creating the architectural ensemble of the Kremlin, may serve an example of joining architectural style of three centuries.
In the museum of Vologda one can meet with ancient russian works, russian and West European arts, national trades of this region, know life, creative and professional way of life of famous people.
Monuments of the town tell about historical facts and events. Some of that events are imagine in the monument, which was erected in 1959 year. One of the bas – relief of this monument reflects the events of XII century, time of town creation (1147). At the center of bas – relief is underlined a figure of monk, and around working trade. There is a legend, that in 1147 year came a monk to Vologda, and settled on highest bank of the river. His name was Geracim. On the second bas – relief is represented the battle between Vologda people with Lithuanians and Poles invaders. The third bas – relief devoted to establishment of Soviet authority in Vologda. The fourth is an anniversary date «800 years of Vologda».
There are also unusual monuments. For example, the monument devoted to brick, according to one legend this stone fell on tsar Ivan the Terrible, when he was driving up to the town. Or the monument of first lamp. This monument devoted to centenary of electric lightening and represents itself the sculptural composition from lamp stand.
Many famous people were born in Vologda, among them are: a poet K. Batushkov, writer Gilyarovsky, artist V. Vereschagin, physiologist N. Vvedensky, aircraft designer S. Ilyushkin, space – pilot P. Belyaev, F.F. Fortunatov and even English writer J. Conrad.
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The state historic – architectural and art reserve – museum is the largest cultural center of North of Russia. It was created in 1923 year. In part of this museum are included 40 architectural monuments (Kremlin of Vologda, with Sophiysky cathedral and Bell tower) and are represented literary, artistic, and historical – ethnographic, natural – scientific exposition and exhibits.
Collection of this museum consists of more than 400 thousands units of storage, including unique works of ancient Russia paintings of XIV – XVI cent, graphic, ancient manuscript, coins, archaeological and other materials.
Cyrillov and Belozersk
Cyrillov appeared as a settlement attached to Kirilo-Belozersk monastery, founded in 1397 and called after the name of monk Cyril Belozersky. Cyrillov city is an administrative center of Cyrillov area of the Vologda region now. However, considerable part of its two-years-old history is connected with Novgorod government.