The Vladimir region is part of the Central federal district, situated in the centre of european part of Russia. It occupies an area of equal 29000 km2. On west and south-west Vladimir boarder upon Moscow region, on north – Yaroslav and Ivanov regions, on south upon Ryazan, on east and south – east Nizhnii Novgorod. At this moment the region has a developed net of cars and railroads industries. In particular, the territory of the region are crossed by three main trunk – railways: Moscow – Nizhnii Novgorod, Moscow – Yaroslavl, Moscow – Kazan.
Provincial centre – is a town Vladimir. This town was created in 1108 year by Vladimir Momomakh, as a strategic main settlement for protection of enemies. In oder to protect south – east boarders was built a stronghold. This place was chosen due to its profitable strategic location – on north was a river, on west and east were the steep ravines.
In the middle of XII cent. Vladimir became a capital of Vladimir – Suzdalsky kingdom, thanks to Andrey Bogolubsky.
1252-63 years – the time of government of Alexander Nevsky, who was buried in Christmas temple. After 30 years the town was a residence of russian metropolitans, what was connected with Kiev ravage. Thanks to this factor the town in the middle of XIII cent. was the centre of North – east ancient Russaia. There were carried out the meetings of rissian kings. But this pleasure time for citizens was not so long. And in 1328-13332 year Vladimir belonged to Moscow. Conformably, the great king's and bishop's altars were sent to Moscow.
In 1408 year at the erected Uspensky cathedral began to paint a dome and an iconostasis. This work was made by Andrey Rublev. In XVII cent. with a great force developed a stone construction. However, by that time Vladimir didn't have numerous buildings. As by 1668 year there were 400 houses, at which were living 990 people. A prosperity began in XVIII cent., when the town was reconstructed with a plan. At that time appeared a governor's house, a noble collection, a ring of Uspensky cathedral, hosting yards and other buildings. In 1861 year was built the first railway, and railway station.
Vladimir – is the gates of «Zolotoe koltso» of Russia. It is a rapid developed town, which kept as old monuments as new buildings in modern style. In the world it is famous his souvenirs. These souvenirs are made from precious stones and enamel, crystal, textile, wood. Guests are enthusiastic over the souvenirs with images of architectural monuments: The Golden Gates. Uspensky Cathedral, The Coverings on Nerli and Bogolubov.
Dmitreevsky cathedral was erected in 1194-97 year and devoted to saint warrior Dmitriy Solonsky. The main advantage of this cathedral – is his sculptural decoration, made of cutting stones.
Dmitrievskiy cathedral is more interesting work of Vsevolod «Big Nest» epoch and the most beautiful cathedrals in Ancient Russia.
At present time this temple doesn't work. It is the architectural monuments of federal meaning and includes at the list of UNESCO monuments.
Uspensky cathedral (1158-60) is a universally famous monument of architecture and the main work temple of Vladimir – Suzdal eparchy. It is the architectural monuments of federal meaning and includes at the list of UNESCO monuments. Here keeps some fragments frescos of unknown artists of XII century.
The church «The Coverings on Nerl» (Pokrova on Nerl) - the best constructions of Vladimir – Suzdal architecture of Andrey Bogolubskogo epoch. It was built in 1165 year.
This church is compared with the old greek temples. It differs from other churches, because it has a special harmony of proportions and well – decorated stone carving.
This church don't have a royalty like at Uspensky cathedral and greatness of Dmitrievsky temple, because architects could to master the whole weight of stones and created an effect of weightlessness with a lot of light. The walls of this temple are decorated with a traditional for Vladimir -Suzdal architecture white stoned carving.
The church of the Coverings on Nerl (Pokrova on Nerl) was pronounced the monument of federal meaning and included in the list of Universally heritage of UNISCO a long time ago.
The Golden gate – is a rare monument of military – engineering architecture of Ancient Russia. This monument was built in 1164 year, he kept from his old construction only two white – stoned walls.
Individuality of this construction is that, among the same gates, which were built in Jerusalem, Constantinople and Kiev, for present day was kept only the Golden gates in Vladimir.
In tsar's Andrey Bogolubsky time, it was the trimmest and solemn gate of Vladimir. Besides, defence goal, they had a meaning of triumphal arch.
In Vladimir, the prince's armed force were passing through arch, had returned from march and had gone protecting their native country. At that place were met foreign ambassadors and famous guests , celebrated a triumphal coming to the great land of Alexander Nevsky and Dmitriy Donskoy.
At present time, there is one of the exposition of Vladimir-Suzdal historic – architectural and art reserved museum in Vladimir town.
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Suzdal continued being outstanding cultural, religious and craft center of Russia. Already in 16-17 centuries in the town intensive building started. At this time all recent ensembles, the best of which are architectural constructions of the ancient Kremlin, the Pokrovsky and Spaso-Efimiev monasteries, were erected. The 18th century was noted by intensive building of parish churches in the suburb, and already by the beginning of the 19th century town ensemble of Suzdal formed finally.
A village with this name is situated on the Nerl river in 4 km from Suzdal. Here there is one of the first white-stone constructions of North-East Russia – the church of Boris and Gleb, erected in 1152 and altered in 18 century. It resembles a cubic one-headed 3-apse temple. By the way, Kideksha was Jury Dolgoruky's patrimony. He built a stone temple in four kilometers from Suzdal in place Kideksha, whereas in Suzdal, being actually the main city of the princedom, the prince didn’t erect a white-stone church. The legend, that the prince’s summer residence was located in Kideksha, is very late. Meanwhile, in Kideksha remains of defensive rampart were kept.
The town is younger on five years than Moscow. Unfortunately, many old constructions couldn't be kept. Only a part of them is now accessible to tourists. Above the Sacred gate, inside which special bays for devotees’ sitting were constructed, the five-domed church of John the Divine, built in 1670, towers. Behind the gate the main erection of the monastery – the Cathedral of St. Michael Archangel with a hip bell tower, built in 1729, opens up before visitors’ eyes.
Speaking about Murom, people frequently use a phrase from Pushkin’s poem “Ruslan and Lyudmila”: “Here there is Russian spirit, here there is a smell of Russia”, having become winged with time. And that is the reason why. The name of Old Russian hero Elias Muromets, the hero of many Russian fairy tales and legends, is connected with the name of the town. His prototype was a real person who was born in one of the villages of the town, called Karacharovo, which nowadays is included in Murom boundaries. It is considered, that Elias’s izba was located on the place of house 279 in Priokskaya street.
Gorohovets is located at a distance of 11 km from railway station “Gorohovets”. The town arose of the fortress, founded by Jury Dolgoruky on the bank of the Klyazma river. This place is interesting in keeping of monuments not only of church architecture, but also ancient izbas round them.
Gus-Hrustalniy is located in the eastern part of Meshcherskaya lowland, on the river Gus, in 63 km to the south from Vladimir. In Russia the town is famous as the center of glass industry. Here there are plants crystal, glass, creolin, reinforced and also the textile combine, where cotton fabrics are produced.
The main sights of Vladimir can be seen if you walk along Moskovskaya Street which is the main traffic artery of old Vladimir. A gate was set up in its western part in the 12th century named the Golden Gate. There was also a Silver Gate set up in the east. Unfortunately, it did not last out, but the Golden Gate welcomes guests of the city coming from the Moscow direction. The construction took ten years starting in 1154 when Andrey Bogolyubskiy was the Prince. The old reliable technique was used: the walls consisted of a strong white ashlar frame, and the inside was filled in with rubble (large crags) mixed with very strong mortar.
The town Alexandrov – is the largest cultural centre of Vladimir region. On the emblem of the town are imaged two anvils and vices. These symbols are evidence of one most ancient work of citizens - blacksmith's work.
The ancient town «Bogolubovo»
The ancient town «Bogolubovo», and now the village, is located at a distance of 10 km from Vladimir. The creation of this town connected with old legend about appearance of the Blessed Virgin to prince Andrey. This town was built in1158 year by order of prince Andrey. Firstly, the town was a residence of Andrey, and was divided on two into parts by inner wall. On south part was the castle being built in XII century, where lived a court. And northern part belonged to servants and craftspeople. After century the castle began to belong Bogolubsky monastery. Now one can to visit this monastery through the gates, having raised in 1841 year.
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