Ufa is the capital of Bashkortostan.
The city is located in the Cis-Ural region on the bank of the river Belaya, at the inflow Ufa and Dema rivers into it.
Before XVI century on the place of so-called Old Ufa was an ancient fortified Nogai settlement Turat-tau that's called Chertovo Gorodishche in Russian sources. In 1574 at the juncture of the rivers Belaya and Ufa the fortress Ufa was founded. Later it became a town. In XVII century Ufa was a great trade center connecting the central part of Russia and Siberia. In XIV century the city became a river and railroad transport junction. Industry also began to develop.
Today Ufa is the largest oil-refining center in Russia. Also the following sectors of industry are highly developed: chemical, petrochemical, engineering, metal working, light and food ones including vitamine factory and building material production. Ufa is a great interregional transport and logistic junction, a significant scientific center.
The city development brings cultural prosperity. In 1722 the first theatrical performances were staged by polish rebels . Now there are six functioning theatres in the city. They are State Theatre of Opera and Ballet, the Bachkir Academic Drama Theatre named after Mazhit Gafuri, Russian Academic Drama Theatre of Bashkortostan, National Youth Theatre named after Mustay Karim, Ufa State Tatar Theatre «Nur», Bachkir State Puppet theatre.
The following museums are open for visitors: National Fame Hall, Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, Museum of Geology and Mineral Resources, Forest Museum, Memorial House-Museums: S.T. Aksakov, M.Gafuri, A.E.Tyulkin, Sh. Khudaiberdin.
Famous natives of Ufa include classic writer S.T. Aksakov, painter, a member of the group of artists known as Peredvizhniki M.V.Nesterov, a world-known dancer R.Nureyev, a rock singer Zemfira, a rock singer Yuri Shevchuk and his band DDT. A writer Sergey Dovlatov was born in Ufa. Minister of Economic Development and Trade is also from Ufa by birth. A famous Czech writer Y. Gashek worked there in 1918. Here he published some local issues and wrote a set of short stories and causeries.
The main confessions in Ufa are Orthodoxy and Islam. It is Ufa where the mufti of Central ecclesiastical Islam Department of Russia and European countries of CIS has been staying.
Ufa is the place where two different cultures are mixed up complementing each other and at the same time remaining their uniqueness. Although the various ambitions, religious faiths Russians and Bashkirs live on friendly terms. One of the sights of Ufa proves the statement. A touching Monument of friendship perhaps is the most frequently attended place in Ufa. It was established in 1965 on the day of 400th anniversary of annexation of Bashkortostan to Russia. The monument comprises two female figures symbolizing Bashkortostan and Russia. The women are sitting half-turned offering their hands with laureate wreaths that are the symbols of harmony and peace. There is a bas-relief between them depicting a significant historical event, meeting Bashkirs and Russians. One more well-known monument in Ufa is a monument to a Bashkir national hero Salawat Yulayev. Many things in modern-day Bashkortostan are named after Yulayev including a town, a hockey team, and the republic's State Prize.
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Theatres in Ufa
There are six theatres in Ufa now: State Theatre of Opera and Ballet, the Bachkir Academic Drama Theatre named after Mazhit Gafuri, Russian Academic Drama Theatre of Bashkortostan, National Youth Theatre named after Mustay Karim, Ufa State Tatar Theatre «Nur», Bachkir State Puppet theatre.