The Tretjakov State Gallery
The Tretjakov Gallery
Tretjakov Paul Michailivitch (1832-1898), the founder of the Tretjakov gallery, manufacturer, philanthropist, lived in Lavrushinky lane, 8. He transformed this house into the gallery and in 1892 presented it to Moscow. Before the entry into the gallery in 1980 the monument to P. M. Tretjakov (sculpture A. L. Kibalnikov) was opened.
“Description of the picture gallery of Privy Councilor Fedor Ivanovitch Pryashnikov” appeared yet in 1853. Personal familiarity with this collection in 1856, visiting the Hermitage in Petersburg induced Paul Michailovitch to collecting.
The first purchases of works of art, made by Paul Tretjakov, belong to the middle of 1850-s. He bought 11 graphic lists. In a year he had oil painted pictures mostly of Dutch masters. Later Tretjakov gave preference to Russian artists. At first he bought works of his little known contemporaries. The picture of V. G. Hudyakov “The skirmish with Finnish smugglers” was one of the first pictures which appeared at Tretjakov in 1856. This year is considered the day of foundation of the Tretjakov gallery.
Contemporaries delighted Tretjakov’s natural intellect and particular taste. He bought pictures often regardless of critics’ opinions, prohibition of censorship, pressure of recognized authorities. If the work appeared at Tretjakov, then for artists it was equivalent to public recognition. He enjoyed special confidence of painters; he was the first whom they showed their new works in studios or at exhibitions, often on the eve of opening day.
First P. M. Tretjakov’s collection took place right in the house, but quantity of pictures became
larger and larger. By 1972 there were more than a hundred and fifty pictures and there was no spare place in the drawing-room. In spring of 1874 for the collection a two-storied building by project of Alexander Kaminsky (husband of Tretjakov’s sister) was built. It sided with the southern wall of the house and was situated in the direction to the fence of church of Saint Nicholas in Tolmachies, near by their lot, and occupying a part of the garden around the house. Two halls were connected with living part by an inner passage, but had a separate entry from the street. The temple had been built since 1690 to 1697; a belfry and refectory were built in 1834. Casing, jambs and lintels of windows were decorated with fine stucco moulding. The temple has a status of brownie attached to the gallery; here a part of icon collection, including the icon of Vladimirskaya Mother of God of XII century. The most prominent purchase of Tretjakov (92000 rubles) was a series of V. V. Vereschagin’s works.
After the Tretjakov death in 1898 was created collective apparatus for administration of gallery-Tutorial Council. The house of Tretjakov was full suitable for collections needs
In 1913 was elected a trustee of Tretjakov Gallery Igor Grabar (architect, artist), after revolution 1917 he became a director of the gallery. Firstly in the history he used the historical-monograph principle, which is the main principle construction of museum expositions in Russia.
3 June1916 Tretjakov Gallery was declined as»
From the first days of the Great Patriotic War in the gallery dismantling of the exposition began. Pictures were taken away from the walls, pulled out of frames and taken away from stretchers. The museum prepared for dispatch in evacuation. A part was sent in Nizhni Novgorod.
Only twice high-explosive bombs fell down on the building of the Tretjakov State gallery – during night attacks in August and November. But notwithstanding it in the dilapidated building in Moscow active exhibition work was carried out.
On the 17th of May of 1945 the Tretjakov State gallery was opened again. Since early morning a huge throng filled Lavrushinsky lane. To the festival the military, diplomats, leading scientists, writers, actors and artists were invited. Gladness and pride overfilled hearts of the participants of this event. After returning from evacuation the Tretjakov State gallery turned out the first among the museums, which threw doors before the grateful audience.
During the first decade after the victory in the war almost every year All-Union exhibitions of Soviet artists were arranged. Special attention was paid to organization of exhibitions, built by monographic principle. It concerned both painters of the Soviet time and the famous Russian artists of XVIII-XIX centuries.
In 1985 Tretjkov gallery has got the status of Universally Museum Association.
Since 1986-1995 the Tretjakovka had been closed for visitors. The exposition was opened on Krimsky bank. The building itself was being reconstructed and new ones joined.
In April of 1995 for visitors renewed exposition of classical Russian art was opened in Lavrushinsky lane. Traditional route and location of materials were kept in many respects. In the new-old building of the Tretjakov gallery it is possible now to extend greatly the exposition of ancient Russian art, devote halls to sculptures of XVIII – the first half of XIX century and frontier of XIX-XX centuries.
Drawings, requiring special light regime, is demonstrated now in specially equipped halls, “Depository”, where one can see works of applied Old Russian art, miniatures, icons in precious settings, has appeared.
In December of 1998 in the building of the Tretjakov gallery on Krimsky bank the first part of new exposition “, embracing the period from border of the centuries till the post-war time, was opened. In May of 2000 completion followed: since the middle of 1950-s till the end of 1990-s. Thus, today in the halls of the Gallery the panorama of Russian art of the previous century, is fully represented for the first time for many decades of Russian museum affair development.
In 2006 year the State Tretjakov Gallery celebrated its 150-anniversary. It is the largest Fine Art Museum in the world. At the present time museum's collection consist of 100 thousand units of keeping custody.
As Universally Museum Association Tretjakov gallery has in its structure the memorial art museums: house-museum of M. Vasnetsov, A.S. Golubkina, P.D. Korin, N.S. Goncharova.
The Tretjakov gallery arranges exhibitions for pupils and students, for pupils of 1-4 grades:
“The first traveling about the museum” – about the fact how P. M. Tretjakov’s house turned into the Museum of Arts. “The world of fairy tale and dream” – about fairy and fantastic images of personages of N. K. Rerih, V. M. Vasnetsov, M. A. Vrubel (not for the first visiting the gallery).
“Travel in ancient Russia” – about Old-Russian art – icons, frescos, mosaics.
“The world of pictures” – about expressive means of painting, about idea of a picture and its realization in the works of V. A. Serov, K. A. Korovin, Z. E. Serebryakova, V. A. Borisov-Musatov and other artists of frontier of XIX-XX centuries.
For pupils of the 5th – 7th grade.
“The first familiarity with the Tretjakov gallery”. Masterpieces of Russian art. Elder children are told about how touches, lines, spots turn a list of paper into an artistic figure. (By materials of drawing exhibitions).
“The window into the world of the nature” is shown. Landscapes in the works of I. I. Shishkin, I. K. Aivazovsky, A. I. Kuindzhi and other artists. Depository. The collection of wares of precious metals and jewels (XII – the beginning of XX century).
Students and adult visitors are acquainted with:
“Russian art of XVIII-XIX centuries”. Review excursion. The history of the Tretjakov gallery foundation. Familiarity with masterpieces of Russian art of XVIII-XIX centuries. Art of Old Russia of XII-XVII centuries. “Art of the second half of XIX century. Art of frontier of XIX-XX centuries. New problems and search of new expressive means in the art of frontier of XIX-XX centuries. Creative unions: “Union of Russian artists”, “The world of art”, “Blue rose”.
The gallery works every day 10.00-19.30, the box office till 18.30.
Admission in the exposition till 18.30. Free day – Monday.
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