Silhouettes of Moscow
“They say the long-living houses have at times human features.
Everybody, who have ever lived in them in melancholy and anxiety
Or in fond days, warmed by the sun,
at least a small part of the soul left on the threshold,
There, where breathe, it would seem, only stones.”
The first mention of Moscow was in 1147 years. The founder of Moscow is officially considered the prince Jury Dolgoruky. The followers of Moscow formation were famous people Andrey Bogolubsky, Ivan Kalita, Ivan Krasny, Dmitriy Donskoy and other great russian regents.
Moscow appeared as one of many Russian cities on the high hill, circled by the wall of forests in place of junction of the Moscow river and its tributaries – the Yauza and Neglinnaya. The river gave the city its name. It is not too wide river, winding about the whole city, dressing in the center in granite of quays and drawing together with bridges, long since hasn’t overflown the banks and flooded lowlands in the days of spring overflow.
The territorial development of Moscow was determined with necessity of constant and effective defense. From south and east, Moscow was assaulted by nomad horde, from west was attacked by Poland.
In 1156 on the bank of the Moscow, on the high hill, arose the first wooden fortress – the future Moscow Kremlin. The Kremlin was founded by order of Jury Dolgoruky. Moscow was then a small fortress, hidden in primeval forests of Vladimiro-Suzdalskaya land. In the winter of 1238 to Moscow came up Mongol-Tatars. Moscowers defended themselves with fortitude, but the wooden Kremlin couldn’t contain Mongolian force. And it seemed, Moscow would never rise from the ashes, but it’s very convenient place – the very heart of Russia. Moscow was rebuilt, again raised the Kremlin walls of sturdy oak. Moscow increased in size, became the center of Russian lands.
In 1328 year Moscow became the centre of russian lands.
In 1365 Russia suffered from drought, in church of All Saints caught fire, wind quickly spread the fire. In two hours Moscow burned down “because of a small candle”.
Moscowers couldn’t find shelter if an enemy would come. However now Moscow “craftsmen of stone” are already so skilled and Moscow itself is so rich that under prince Dmitriy, called afterwards Donskoy, it was decided to fortify the city not by wooden, but stone wall, having extended considerably the area of the Kremlin itself.
All winter long people brought white stone from Moscow quarries in Moscow and in spring building the stone walls of the Kremlin, the first stone fortifications in Suzdal Russia, began.
In distemper times, all richness were created by the way of seizures, plundering, and in such conditions, only a strong authority could provide some part of lands for people in oder to take from lands – bread.
Years were coming. Tatars were dispelled from Moscow. But now authority passed from boyards to Ivan the Terrible,from him to another regents. And every regents thought not about the country,they thought how to hold its throne for a long time. In that time the fighting for the power hadn't been stopped, everybody wants to govern this Mighty Country.
When it was crowded there, at the end of XV century was built a new Kremlin from baked bricks.
In 1612 year the Territorial Army from Nizhniy Novgorod with a head of Kuzma Minin and Dmitriy Pozharsky released Moscow from polish invaders.
Thanks to Moscow has been for three century in position of the second capital, it managed to save its planning with old palaces and churches. St. Petersburg was an artificial creature while Moscow reflected the national traditions. Afterwards the city became as the centre of phylosophical idealism. Moscow could join national and international traditions. Most of these reforms were in the time of government Romanov.
In 1613 year in Moscow was in session Zemsky council from different groups of people and levels of population. After long dispute, they elected Michael Romanov on the throne. Young prince became a founder of Romanov's dynasty, they governed Russia till 1917 year.
The opening of the Moscow university in 1755 (later Moscow State University by M.V. Lomonosov) exerted a great influence on the development of russian science and education.
Now it is one of the main university in Russia.
When the Napoleon's army came to Moscow, citizens couldn't give their mighty city, they burnt it. All of that told Napoleon, that this war became a russian native war. In moscow fire was fused the crown of «universally conqueror», so said many writers.
On 12 March 1918, Moscow became the capital of USSR. A new epoch began. In 1923 were put in circulation the first buses, in 1933-the first trolleybuses. In 1934 worked metro, were opened the new factories Placed a high emphasis of citizens educational.
In 1920-1930 years were destroyed a lot of temples, and even ring sound was under a ban.
Moscow suffered many wars, but the biggest and most destructive was the World War II. The battle of Moscow was the main event of the first war year. The Germans came closely to Moscow, during October, the enemy could inflict a defeat on the city. Many factories and other strategic objects were got out the city, mainly in Samara, Ekaterinburg . But it couldn't broken the native spirit.
This battle was the first russian victory, and the first german defeat.
Since 1960 Moscow has th new board «MKAD»
The fate of Moscow depends upon its geographical position. Moscow is placed in the center of Russia, where closely many strong towns are situated.
No one town in Russia have no such roads to Moscow. Moscow is the largest economical, political, scientific and cultural centre of Russia.