The nature neatly added a spacious and deep bay, which acquired name
Tsemesskaya, to the Black sea coast. High mountains, surrounding the bay, formed
in this place a gigantic amphitheater, in the center of which a wide valley with
a small river spread. A settlement on the picturesque shores of Tsemesskaya bay
had been created by various peoples for thousands years. Abundant shores keep
memory about an ancient Creek town Bata, about Genoese colony Kalos Limen,
Turkish fortress Sudzhuk-Kale, and at last about fortification Tsemesskoe, which
in 1839 acquired name Novorossiysk. In 1839 the Black sea coastline was
separated into two parts.
Rear-admiral L. M. Serebryakov was appointed to
command the first section with the center in Novorossiysk.
The first stage of development of the city is connected with the name of this
man. As a matter of fact he became a father-founder of Novorossiysk. The first
time when Serebryakov landed was during assault of Sudzhuk-Kale. In 1828 with
squadron of A. S. Greig he participated in capture of Anapa, after which
followed diplomatic service and traveling in Turkey and Egypt with ambassadorial
mission. Serebryakov participated in expeditions in Novotroitskoe and
Mikhailovskoe fortresses and also in the landing operations of the Black sea
fleet in 1838. Under him during 10 years Novorossiysk had turned from a military
lager into a city. The admiral opened here a hospital, a free school for
children of mountain dwellers. He was an initiator of founding a city public
After the Crimean war by Serebryakov’s insistence Novorossiysk was restored
as a city and a commercial port and gradually turned into a capital of the
district. So unhurriedly Novorossiysk had been developing till the 80-s of 19
In 1879 professor of Chemistry Kuchera discovered the richest
deposits of marl – a raw for producing of cement. It is incredible but fact:
Novorossiysk is the only place in the whole Russia where there is marl, good for
getting of qualitative Portland cement. Besides that qualitative lithographic
punches can be produced of local stone, extracted in Bavaria. At the end of 1879
American businessman Tvedl came to Kuban by Mendeleev’s invitation for
organization of oil business. Having managed to attract investments of French
industrialist, Tvedl established joint-stock company “Russian standard”, bought
a dale, siding with the sea and began building of a berth and an oil refinery.
Gradually sprang up industrial area of Novorossiysk – “French town”, “French
colony “Standard””, which has kept its name to our time. And Tvedle, who had
been caught stealing state kerosene and bought its share in the company, left
Russia in 1883.
The rail road (1888) connected Novorossiysk with the center
of the country. Novorossiysk port (1886) became one of the largest on the coast.
The main products which were exported by sea were grain, timber, cement, oil.
Even the economic crisis (1891) didn’t influence on temps of the urbanization.
On the contrary, only owing to it building of grandiose high way Novorossiysk –
Sukhumi began. The way, acquired name “Golodnaya” (“Hungry”), was built in
record-breaking time and livened up the whole economic of the region.
In 1894 joint-stock company “Vladimir railroad", which had
built the railroad and the port, opened an elevator, the first in Russia and the
largest in Europe. A powerful electric power station was constructed in complex
with it. It was the first electric power station in Russia, producing
three-phase current by machines, invented by Russian employee of firm “Siemens”
O. I. Dolivo-Dobrovolsky. By its power the Novorossiysk elevator yielded only to
Chicago one, and in level of mechanization excelled it.
After 30 years of
existence, in 1896 Black sea district is separated into the smallest independent
Russian empire, Black sea province. Novorossiysk, Veljaminovsk (Tuapsinsk),
Sochi districts were formed as parts of it. Only city Novorossiysk became the
center of the province. The new status gave a new impulse in the development of
not only industrial but also cultural and also resort center.
A national of
Turkey Seraphimov opened the first swimming bathes in the city, and Gutsman –
the first permanent nickelodeon (1897) in Russia. A wonderful theater, which was
bought in modernist style (hasn’t been kept to our days) was opened in the city
park (1913). More and more health-resort visitors came in Novorossiysk by
railroad. Rails were laid to the berth specially for them. Now passengers of
“Black sea express” could transfer from carriages into a ship board, carrying
them in all Black sea ports.
Novorossiysk was strongly destroyed as the
result of operations during the revolution and the Civil war. Plants and
factories didn’t work, people were lack of food, the port didn’t work. Gradually
municipal economy revived. People began to return home. Population increased.
For 5 years it became 44 thousand people more. Before 1936 on the whole length
of the coastline of Novorossiysk there was no meter of improved land. The quay
served trading and transport purposes. By the beginning of the war it was
managed to build a part of the quay, length of which made up about 2 km. The
city gradually turned not only into industrial but also cultural center.
Since the first days of the Second World the city became an arena of cruel
battles. Novorossiysk became a unassailable fortress on the way of the
aggressors’ army, striving to Caucasus. In autumn of 1942 Germen reached the
shores of Tsemesskaya quay, captured the city and came up to factory “October”.
They didn’t manage to go father. Moreover during battles no German ship managed
to moor in Tsemesskaya quay. An insuperable firing line was formed in the area
of cement works on the way to Gelendzhik, in the eastern outskirts of the city.
Defense of Novorossiysk, the heroic 225-day epopee of defenders of the
Legendary Malaya Land, the desperate landing and liberation of the city on the
16th of September of 1943 became key military operations in the battle for
Caucasus. For the time of the battles Novorossiysk was fully destroyed. It was
necessary to rebuild the city. An author of new Novorossiysk became architect
Iophan. A semi-centennial after-war history turned Novorossiysk into the largest
port of the south of Russia.
Lack of water is one of problems of the city which had been particular actual
right till 1971. Shores of the Tsemesskaya quay doesn’t abound in springs. And
water is necessary for all. Water was carried in Novorossiysk by tankers. In the
morning housewives lined up in huge line. Later by method of “people’s building”
it was managed to extend a water-pipe. Citizens’ joy was so large that they
erected a fountain-monument at once. It was called “Gifting water”. A girl on
bended knees stood and stretched out her palms full of water near square of
Heroes on the quay, just at the place, where people had to stand in huge lines.
Unfortunately the fountain hasn’t been kept to our days. The city became to
abound in so much water and of so excellent quality that Novorossiysk became the
first city in the USSR in which company “Pepsico” built a factory on bottling of
A vineyard was laid out round the city. In autumn one could
regale oneself with very good harvest of grape for table use. Aromatized special
wines are produced of local wine material in Novorossiysk winery.
areas of the city are situated on the rocky strongholds of soil. For planting
trees it is necessary at first to break a rock and make light firm soil, which
is called here “peas”, take out the whole mass to the dump, then bring fertile
soil and only then plant trees. And one has to protect young plants against bora
for several years. Bora is a severe north-east wind. It was so strong that pulls
up trees by the roots and blows off roofs of houses. If one manages to solve the
problem of bora climate of Novorossiysk would approximate to the climate of
Sochi, but there is no solution yet.
Though a hundred years ago Russian
geographer Wrangler suggested to dig a tunnel in the ridge of Markhot for the
cold air doesn’t accumulate on its northern tops and can gradually “stream down”
to the sea. Modern scientists think that digging of one or several tunnels will
take very many years. Despite all difficulties Novorossiysk is a green city.
Numerous squares and parks were laid out in it, a beautiful quay was built.
Thought the city is rather industrial than resort one, the city beach is
equipped very well.
It is better to come in Novorossiysk for excursions when you are tired of
rest in the resort and want to plunge into the atmosphere of the real port city
and see numerous sights of the city-hero.
All articles of this section:
Suburbs of Novorossiysk
Novorossiysk is an industrial city but around it there are several wonderful resort places. They are the Southern Ozerevka, Shirokaya Balka, Abrao-Dyurso. These coastal settlements have a very ancient history.
Sights of Novorossiysk
City Novorossiysk is quite neatly divided into the western and eastern part. The western part is residential, the eastern one is industrial. Inhabitants call the western part “this side”, and the eastern one – “that side”, so it has been historically accepted since times of “Standart”.
hi i will visit Novorossiysk next month for some work ...so i need a translator and guide stay with me all the time ...better for me she's a girl and driving ..you can help me and how much will cost me ...thanks
I portage enjoyment.
Thankyou , good luck .