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Nzhni Novgorod

Nizhni Novgorod is an administrative centre on Nizhni Novgorod region, the centre of Volga federal region. It takes the five place in population and is the main  economical, transport and cultural centre of the country. From 1932 to 1990 the city was called after the name of proletarian writer A. M. Grorkiy.
The city is situated n the place of confluence of two great Russian rivers the Volga and the Oka.
It was founded as a defended post of Russian lands in 1221 by prince Yriy Vsrvolodovich. This town always played an important role in Russian life.
Just here merchant Kuzma Minin and Dmitriy Pozharsky assembled the second irregulars, which released Moscow from Polish invaders in 1612.
Its car industry became one of the main object of defence industry in the World War II times.

Today Nizhni Novgorod is one of the largest centres of Russia, and the leading role belongs to machine building and metal working. In this sphere the primary scope of production belongs to mechanical engineering, shipbuilding and promotion. This factory produces lorries and cars, and also armoured troop carriers. Nizhni Novgorod factory by the name of G.I. Petrovsky is the only producer of black boxes in Russia.

Nixhfarm - is one of the largest producers medecines in Russia.

Nizhni Novgorod is one of the centres of russain industry of informational technology.
There are more than 600 unique historical, architectural and cultural monuments in the city, it caused the UNESCO to include Nizhni Novgorod in the list of 100 world cities, representing world historical and cultural value.

The Kremlin

One of Nizhni Novgorod architectural sights is the Kremlin, the historical center of the city, which was built in the former Mordvinian city, which has been taken by storm. At first it was wooden and white-stoned, at last, brick Kremlin was a mainstay of Moscow on the east. A two-kilometer wall is fortified by thirteen towers (Dmitrievskaya, Porokhovaya, Georgievskaya, Borisoglebskaya, Zatchatjevskaya, Belaya, Tchasovaya, Ivanovskaya, Severnaya, Tainitskaya, Koromislova, Nickolskaya, Kladovaya). The thirteenth tower is an offtake arrow slit, connected with Dmitrievsky gates by an arched bridge.

The Horologium

The Horologium took such name as the sentries, being there, and clocks, being on the top since XVII century. They were the only mechanical instruments for defining time in the city. The clock-face was divided into 17 parts so many hours is in the longest day of a year, on June, 22. Before Peter the Great day was divided into two unequal parts from sunrise to sunset and from sunset to sunrise. Thus, in summer day hours were longer than night ones, in summer on the contrary, and only in equinoxes hour counting system reminds of the present-day one. A watchmaker constantly needed to move hands for coincidence of time ground level with the sunrise.

Tainitskaya (secret tower)

Tainitskaya Tower (secret tower) was called in such a way due to an underground way, stretching down to the Potchaina river. People went on it for water. Gunpowder was kept in the tower. The underground way was found in the middle of XIX century and at the same time it was covered with earth.

Koromislova (yoke) Tower

Name Koromislova (yoke) tower is called after a legend. The say, in 1520 Kazan khan Saip-Girey besieged the city and when in the yearly morning a young girl went for water, a patrol attempted to catch her but she killed many Tatars by her yoke though she was died. Girey recoiled thinking that if there are such women what men they had. But there is another legend. They say, builders for strengthening the Kremlin were to kill the first living creature which will appear in the construction site. It was a woman, who came to the Potchaina for water; she was killed and buried together with her yoke under the tower.

Arkhangelsky cathedral

Arkhangelsky cathedral - the oldest preserved building in the Kremlin was built not later than in the middle of XVI century and rebuilt in XVII century. The cathedral building served as a house church of the great princes of Nizhni Novgorod and a burial-vault of their offsprings. At present under the cathedral there are graves of Basil Kirdyapa, Basil Jurjevitch, who ruled Nizhni Novgorod in 1446, Ivan Vasiljevitch the last great prince of Nizhni Novgorod.

The modern Kremlin is an administrative centre on Nizhni Novgorod region, the centre of Volga federal region. There are the Legislative Assembly and the Town Council, the region and municipal  administrations, the representative service of Russian Federation President in the Volga Region, circuit and arbitrage courts. Besides, the Kremlin is the cultural center, here are placed The Museum of Art and The Philharmonic Society, Victory alley and Nixhni Novgorod memorial.

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Nizhni Novgorod Cathedrals
At present time among the buildings of the Nizhni Novgorod fair Spaso-Preobrazhensky cathedral has been preserved. Cathedral of Alexander Nevsky, the second fair cathedral, was built in the spit at the end of XIX century. Its architect is Lev Dal, a son of the famous compiler of the explanatory dictionary of Russian language.
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