Nizhni Novgorod Cathedrals
At present time among the buildings of the Nizhni Novgorod fair Spaso-Preobrazhensky cathedral has been preserved. Cathedral of Alexander Nevsky, the second fair cathedral, was built in the spit at the end of XIX century. Its architect is Lev Dal, a son of the famous compiler of the explanatory dictionary of Russian language.
The architectural ensemble of Nizhni Novgorod Blagoveschensky monastery was founded in XIII century and was an advanced post, protecting the city from the Oka river side.
After the October revolution this monastery was closed, and in its walls were placed citizens cultural and public service institution, a lot of main liturgia things were stolen.
In 70-80th years of XX cent. began a partial restoration of some monastery constructions. 1991 year one can call as the year of revival of Blagoveschensky cathedral.
Now the monastery ensemble consists of five church building and three frames of monastery residence, which were trimmed not high stone wall.
Petchersky monastery is a Nizhni Novgorod relic. Writer Theodore Sologub devoted the whole prose ode to it: “If you are in Nizhni Novgorod, go to Petchersky monastery to bow to it. You’ll like it from the heart.” Dionysius, who founded Nizhni Novgorod Petchersky monastery in 1328-1330, was a monk of Kievo-Petchorskaya lavra. Headed by him the monastery quickly got firmly established economically and became one of the important centers of Russian culture of XIV century. In 1597 the monastery was destroyed by a disastrous landslide. Fortunately, archimandrite Trophimiy had time to take away the main monastery relic – the icon of Petchorskaya Blessed Virgin. The cloister was built in the new place, farer from water.
To 1648 was formed the base kernel of the ensemble – a cathedral with a belfry, Uspenskaya church with a refectory, gate Evfimjevskaya church. Building of stone common cells, which were gradually united into one extensive building, began at the same time.
A monastery hospital with simple one-domed Petropavlovskaya church attached to it was constructed from the east in the same line. From the west pontiff chambers, decorated with patterned cases of windows, peculiar for that time, were erected at the beginning of XVIII century. Under Peter the Great this cloister was used as a reservation of madmen. Nevertheless the monastery prospered. Its community made a living by various simple trades as far as possible. Poet Mariengoph, for example, recalled father’s “night shoes, embroidered with beads, which were bought in Nizhni Novgorod at needleman-monk of Petchorsky monastery.
Voznesensky cathedral is a large five-domed temple on the high white-stoned basement.
Church of Evphimiy Suzdalsky was built in 1642 above the primary “holy” gates of the monastery. Its inner arrangement, articulation of facades are similar to the corresponding architectural elements of Arkhangelsky cathedral of the Nizhni Novgorod Kremlin. One may note the same similarity in the architecture of Uspenskaya church attached to the monastery refectory. An arithmetic school of all social class was opened in the Kremlin yard of the monastery in 1718 and in 1721 for teaching children of cleargy – Hellenic-Greek and Slavic-Russian schools, starting regular education in Niznhi Novgorod.
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