National parks and reserves
National park is a territory, where in an effort to protect the environment, the men's activity must be limited. On the territory of national parks in limited areas is allowed to have a private activity and tourism. That is the difference between national parks ans nature reserves.
Nature reserves are the nature protection organisations, the main aim of them is to keep the first nature appearance on the territory of reserves. Such man's activity, as hunting and tourism are prohibited at the territory of reserves. The reserves, recognized as UNESCO reservations, guarding by international law and are named as biosphere reserves.
The idea of forming national parks was suggested in 1832 by American scientist and artist George Katlin. National parks in Russia began forming only in 1970-s. The first reserve in Russia was the Bargusinsky resreve.
Water of the Baikal is pure, clear and one can observe the underwater life. Air and environment are not touched by mighty hand of civilization. Local inhabitants and power wanted to keep this jewel for the next generation. And it was decided to organize reserves on the bank of Baikal. Here were formed 3 reserves and two national parks.
The Baikal national park
It was based in 1986 on the western bank of the Baikal. The territory park includes the largest island of the Baikal Olkhon. The total area of the park makes up 417.297 ha. Here there are 10 forest areas. 284.7 thousand ha (70% of the territory of the park) are occupied by forests. Pine forests, often with a touch of larch prevail.
In the watershed a small area is occupied by cedar and cedar-fir forests, on the slopes of mountains – rarer fir-woods. The landscape of the national park is very various and picturesque. The great interest is represented by relic steppes. It is remains of tundra-steppe of the late Age of Mamma; they are interesting for their kept biological types of former epochs.
The flora of the park numbers over 1344 species. Among them are only 250 species of lichens and 200 – of moss. In the park grow: tick trefoil, cotoneaster, oxytrope trifoliate and etc.
Animal world is also rich and various. The park numbers 64 species of mammalians. Among them: vermin -14, ungulates – 6, about 34 species of birds. On the small rocky islands of the small sea there are the largest colonies of herring gull. The special value is represented by breeding colony of sunny eagle. Here one can observe migration of many rare feathered birds of prey (eagles, sea-eagles, falcons and also black stork.
Among rodents are prevailed red – field voles, chipmunks, squirrels. There are a lot of hoofed animals – red deers, roes, musk – deers. On the south of forest live wild bores, among predators are ermines, Siberia weasels, sables, foxes, wolves, and bears. At the place of «Snall Sea» dwells Baikal seal.
The world fame is gained by rock paintings on rock Sagan-Zaba. They include portrayals of shamans, running deer, swans. The age of the pictures numbers 2.5 thousand years. Without permit of administration biological collections (including herbariums) are prohibited.
Every year organization of road and transport system (about 60 km for 10 years), building of tourist quarters (in all – 937 quarters) is carried out.
The Transbaikalia State national park
The park was organized in 1986. It occupies Chivirkuisky bay, peninsula of St. Nos, archipelago Usaniy islands with the largest in the Baikal breeding-ground of seal. The park is situated in the middle part of the eastern coast of the Baikal. The area of the park is 267.17 thousand ha. Forest lands occupy 159.6 thousand ha; bogs – 77.0 thousand ha. The park is crossed by 5 pedestrian routes to the mountain Markov, the highest mountain peak of peninsula of St. Nos, which opens panorama of Ushaniy islands, the northern part of Chivirkuisky bay.
Three mineral springs: Zmeiniy, Kulinie bogs, Nechaevskie – enjoy the popularity. The territory of the park numbers 299 species of animals, 3 species of Amphibia and 3 species of reptiles. There are 241 species of birds, among which are such rare species as peregrine, hooded crane, golden eagle, Pallas’ sea eagle, erne and others.
The Barguzinsky biosphere reserve
It was established in 1916 and became the first in Russia game-preserve. His task included preservation and studying of sables. Today it is the oldest reserve in Russia. In 1986 it received the status of biosphere reserve of UNESCO. The reserve is situated in the north-east part of the western side ob Barguzinsky mountain ridge.
The reserve numbers 874 species of plants. Long-term protection of Barguzinsky reserve beneficially affected the number of animal population. Population of bears makes up 250 individuals, squirrels – 500-10,000. The reserve numbers 39 species of mammalians, 243 species of reptiles and 2 species of amphibians. The primary part of the territory is presented by taiga forests of various types. Flora of the higher plants numbers 920 species. Mushrooms are also widely spread here – about 100 species).
The Baikalo – Leninsky reserve
This reserve was opened in 1986 year and placed on the north – west coast of the Baikal.
The ancient relic steeps are were kept safe. Flora of high plants is more than 800 species. There are many mosses, lichens, mushrooms. There are 50 sorts of mammal, about 240 kinds of birds. One can meet with rare birds as sea – eagles, black storks, scoters. Baikalo – Leninsky reserve are famed with bears.
On the territory of this reserve are placed the ancient volcanoes as Uzhniy – Kedrovsky and Solnechniy, belonged to the number of the largest volcanoes in the world, their ages are 1560 and 1710 million years.
The Baikal State Baikal reserve
The Baikal State reserve is occupied the territory of south coast of Lake Baikal and enveloped a watershed of central part of mountain range Hamar – Daban. The Baikal reserve is the only reserve on the Baikal coasts, which have no any exit to the lake,- the north board of this reserve is formed by barriers – highway and railway. This reserve was organised in 1969 year. Its total area is 165724 ha (reservoirs – 1552 ha).
Animals world is typically mountain – taiga. A large gene pool of plants and animals is kept on the territory of the reserve. The total number of famous plants are more than two thousands plants, vertebrate – more than 350 species, non – vertebrate – more than 1500 species.
There are more than 60 species of rare plants and more than 40 kinds of rare animals.
For example: sables, hares, squirrels, roes, partridge and other animals and birds.
The territory of the reserve is the place of effective keeping the gen pool of wild animals and birds, most of them increased their population thanks to these reserves.