Having rest in Krasnodar
The history and symbolic of Krasnodar
Krasnodar is an administrative, industrial and cultural center of Krasnodar krai, one of the most important industrial, agricultural and resort regions of Russia. Krasnodar is situated on the right bank of the Kuban river.
The emblem has an image of historical emblem of Kuban area in its basis. In the green shield is a golden wall with two similar towers with opened gates and black joints; above the tower there is a golden ancient russian cold steel between two silver horsetails with golden points on their golden poles. In the golden upper is a golden eagle with the Caucasian cross on its chest.
The shield is crowned with the ancient majestic crown, over which the Russian standard with a top in the form of an eagle and letters “ÐÔ” (RF – Russian Federation) in the center of the standard towers. The shield is decorated with golden oaken leafs, connected by a scarlet ribbon. Behind the shield there are 4 blue banners, decorated with golden fringe and the same monograms, encircled with oak woods and laurel branches.
The flag of Krasnodar krai represents a rectangular width of three stripes o different length: upper – blue, middle – crimson and lower – green. Width of two extreme stripes is equal to width of a crimson stripe. In the center of the flag is an emblem of Krasnodar krai, made in green.
Krasnodar has an interesting history of itself creation.
Krasnodar city (till 1920 was Ekoterinodar) was founded as a military lager in 1793 by Black sea (former Zaporozhye) Cossacks, migrated in Kuban after joining of the Western area before the Caucasus to Russia. These lands were gifted to the Black sea arms for diligent service, courage and inviolable faith “in eternal possession” by a charter of Catherine II of the 30th of June of 1792.
Koshevoy ataman of Cossacks Zakhariy Chepega chose the place of “military tower Ekoterinograd” near Arkhangelsk redoubt, founded by the great Russian commander A. V. Suvorov yet in 1778. Building of the fortress by sample of Zaporozhye ruskie in form of quadrangle began. In autumn of 1794 the building was finished. Ekoterinograd became the center of Black sea (later – Kuban) Cossack arms. To the north of the fortress, along the right bank of Karasuna, the first residential area emerged. A. S. Pushkin in the company of general Raevsky’s family passed through Ekoterinograd from Pyatigorsk in Taman in August of 1820. He wrote: “I saw the shores of Kuban and the watch Cossack village – admired our Cossacks: always astride, always ready for fight, in eternal precaution…” Praporshik of Nizni Novgorod, M. J. Lermontov (Russian poet), being in passing in Taman and then in Gelendzhik, to the place of expeditionary troop of A. A. Veljaminov, to whom it was attached, stayed here in autumn of 1837. At that time Ekaterinodar, a military center, bore little resemblance to a town, as it was consisted mostly of small wooden, wicker and even cane constructions.
In 1860 the Black sea arms was renamed into Kuban Cossack arms; Ekoterinodar became the center of Kuban area, and in 1867 after the end of the Caucasian war, acquired the status of civil town. The Black sea district with a center in Novorossiysk, reorganized in 1896 into the Black sea government, was formed in the same year.
The law of 1868, permitting all nonresidents to settle down and buy property in villagers and cities of Kuban area, played important role in development of Ekaterinodar, and it started wide-spread emigrant colonization of Kuban.
In 1870 – 1880, after building of railroad Tikhoretsk – Ekaterinodar – Novorossiysk, the city turned into the large trading and industrial center of Kuban area. After the February revolution of 1917 Ekaterinodar was the center of Cossack counter-revolution, headed by Kuban Rada in 1917 – 1920. In the years of the civil war the town and its outskirts were an arena of violent battles. After ending of establishment of the Soviet powering December of 1920 Ekaterinodar was renamed into Krasnodar.
Cultural life of Krasnodarwas transformed distinctly in the prewar 30s – the local drama theater of Gorky and the theater of operetta emerged. From the 12th of August of 1942 to the 12th of February of 1943 Krasnodar was occupied by Germans, who caused great damage to the city. After the war it was rebuilt and reconstructed but planning of streets of the central part of the city has been kept in the same form as it had been since 19 century.
Architectural peculiarities of the city
The central street of the city, as formerly, is Krasnay street, planned as Southern “Nevsky avenue” (in Saint-Petersburg), along which there are primary establishments, libraries, hotels, theaters, large shops. It is interesting also that the main street of the city was not renamed in the years of the Soviet power, and it has its original name – Krasnaya.
A number of kept ancient buildings in the center of the city gives the bright flavour of look of Ekaterinodar of the end of 19 – the beginning of 20 centuries, when inhabitants called their city “Little Paris”. Classicism, later baroque and modern – all styles are represented in the city buildings. The most prominent buildings are Svyato-Ekatherinensky cathedral, the famous “green house”, the building of the present post office, Savings bank and the artistic museum, the former Mariinsky female college and the former Diocesan female college.
A majestic 14-meter obelisk in honor of 200-anniversary of Kuban Cossack arms was erected in 1897 in the intersection of Krasnaya and Novaya (now – Budennogo street) streets and in commemoration of freedom of lands, gifted to the Kuban Cossacks by Catherine II, was destroyed in the years of the soviet power and reconstructed in 1998.
Modern architecture of the city is quite organically included in the common architectural context. In the center of Krasnodar every house is a little city with its own inner lanes, formed by other houses and household outbuildings. Usually one large family lived in such mini-city.
The city is asphalted, but the places where tram-line was built, laid with cobble. On the territory of the city park of Gorky and in Telmana street, joining it, there are unique monuments of the nature – oaks of three hundred years.
In the city you may carry out an excursion under name “Temples of Krasnodar”. The route passes through the historical part of the city. A guide will tell you about architectural peculiarities of the temple, give basic notions of Christian commandments and ceremonies. These are Svyato-Troitsky and Ekaterininsky cathedrals of seven altars; Svyato-Iljinskaya church and church of Saint Great Martyr George. First stone constructions of the city: the church for the sake of Madonna “Of all greeters of gladness” and a charity; a chapel and a laid stone on the place of destroyed White military cathedral of Alexander Nevsky, Worshiped Cross with names of Cyril and Methodius, and also temple of the Nativity of Christ.
Walk about the city
The museum of local lore
Over 200 thousand exhibits are represented in regional historical and archaeological museum-resort, which was founded in 1897: from bones of extinct whale, dwelled in the Tetis ocean, to the collection of stuffed animals of modern fauna, from treasures of Scythian barrows and reconstructed burial places of bronze century to the articles of Zaporozhye Cossacks, from weapon and armors of medieval Adygeis to sabers, rifle and carts of Civil and the Second Word war of the previous century. Besides constant exposition there are regularly renewed exhibitions.
A collection of stone “woman” is very interesting for specialists. Firstly, the collection of the museum represents not only “stone women” of the war but also sculptures of women who are never founded to the east of the Volga.
The history of the Cossacks is represented by house-museum of the family of F. J. Barsuk, who was an army ataman in 1797-1816 and literary museum of Kuban in the former house of Kukharenko-Nakaznoy ataman of the Black sea Cossack army in 1852-1855, a historian, a writer and a public figure.
The literary museum of Kuban, being a department of Krasnodar state historical and archeological museum-resort and opened in 1988, for the first time collected and systematized the information about Kuban literature since the moment of Cossacks’ migration to the new lands till our days.
The exposition of the museum represents unique manuscript and old printed books of Cyrillic character, books-relics, brought by Cossacks-migrants from Mezhigorsk army monastery of Zaporozhye Cossacks. Rare books of civil press, materials and books of L. G. Kukharenko – an ataman of the Black sea Cossack army, one of the first Kuban writers, editions in life of A. S. Pushkin, M. J. Lermontov, A. P. Poletaev, local writers and historians, who have become bibliographic rarity long since.
The museum organizes and arranges round-up and thematic excursions, lectures and museum lessons, literary soirees, meetings with Kuban prose writers and poets, permanent and mobile exhibitions.
The Arts museum was founded on base of a city picture gallery, which was opened in 1904 by town council, which agreed to get in gift a private collection of F. A. Kovalenko’s work of art, who was the first director of the gallery. The museum is famous for its collection of Russian vanguard art of the beginning of 20 century. The history of collection of Japan colored xylograph. Former private collection of Krasnodar engineer Vorobjev was requisitioned after the revolution and was considered lost for many years. In the 1990-s xylograph in rolls were found out in the archival depository of Federal Security Service Department of Krasnodar krai and passed to the museum. Because of wrong keeping engravings suffered strongly and required restoration, taking more than a year. At the end of the 1990-s xylographs were restored and opened for review. By opinion of arts critics including those of land of the rising sun, Krasnodar collection of Japan graphics is of high cultural value.
Theatres and cinemas in Krasnodar
Particular sight of Krasnodar is cinema “Aurora” in Krasnaya street, 169 and also a cascade of fountains at cinema “Aurora” – a beloved place for walks of citizens. Near the cinema there is a Krasnodar “Statue of Freedom” – a monumental woman with a star in her held out hand. An entertaining program for children is arranged in the building of pizzeria “Aurora” every Saturday and Sunday.
On Saturday – puppet performances and on Saturday – cheery clowns. Various games and contents with prizes. The large-format cinema “Aurora” was put into operation on the 13th of May of 1967. Author of the project is Sochi projecting institute “Giprokommunstroi”; the main architect of the project is Serdukov Eugenó Alexandrovitch. The construction is a monument of architecture of Krasnodar. It is a largest cinema in Kuban and one of the best cinemas in Russia. The cinema consists of two cinema halls – large one for 1179 persons and a small one – for 130 persons. The project provides for visiting all premises of the lower floor of the building. A peak, made of flange beams (metallic configurations of hung ceiling), width of which is 140 cm and length - 83 m are impressed. The façade and sides are made of plate glasses of different seize. The first house in the cinema was carried out on the 12th of May of 1967. The film was called “Salvo of Aurora”.
Cinema “Bulgaria” in Stavropolskaya street, 236a. The cinema admits 450 persons, soft armchairs with lifting arms and swinging backs. Architecture of the building is fully conformed to the world standard. Complete immersion in cinema reality is created in the same way.
Classical music lovers and not only should visit to the Regional State Philharmonic Society. In the period of existence of Azovo-Chernomorsky krai, which includes the territory of present Krasnodar krai, in Krasnodar there was a branch of the Azovo-Chernomorsky regional Philharmonic Society (1934 – 1937). The Krasnodar regional state Philharmonic Society in connection with constitution of an independent territorial unit – Krasnodar krai – was formed in 1939. The building of the Philharmonic Society was built in 1909 by project of academic F. O. Shekhtelby his pupil A. A. Kozlov. By its functional destination it was erected as a winter theater and then acquired the name of Dramatic theater, at present – Philharmonic Society of Krasnidar krai.
The building is mostly three-storied stone and is made of red clay. Bright concert programs with participation of arts experts of Russia L. Zikina, B. Shtokolov, pianist N. Petrov, actor E. Smoktunovsky, “Vivaldi-orchestra”; pop-jazz concerts of groups “Arsenal”, “Blue bird”, “Lube”, “Mashina Vremeni”, “Jazz group of Igor Butman, I. Otiev, L. Dolina and many others were arranged in the concert hall, which in 1997 acquired the name of the composer, the national artist of the USSR G. F. Ponomarenko. For every concert season the regional Philharmonic Society carries out in the krai about 1200 concerts every year.
Krasnodar musical theater
Krasnodar theater of operetta was originated of operetta non-repertory of madam Amirago. In 1931 troupe registered in Armavir as the first Azovo-Chernomorsky regional theater of musical comedy. So a non-repertory theater – a prototype of the future theater of musical comedy – emerged in Armavir. Madam Armavir many times toured with her troupe in Ekatherinodar on the stage of the Summer theater. Here in different years the famous artists of Maliy theater M. Yablokina and S. Juzhin (Sumbatov), the great Shalyapin performed.
Data of birth of the Krasnodar theater became 1933. And in 1937 Azovo-Black sea krai was divided into the present administrative and territorial areas, and the theater was passed to Krasnodar: it was called Krasnodar theater of musical comedy. Its creative baggage at that time included 17 names, among which are: “The last Chardash”, “Merry widow”, “Bondmaid”, “Roz-Mary”… The chief producer of the theater was A. Elisavetsky, band-master – E. Iskander, art director – A. Edigarov. Among actors stared Leonid Orlov, Alexander and Elvira Alexandrovs, young, fascinating Pavel Gerasimov, Eugenia Tumanova, elegant Eugene Kurochkin and favourite of audience Antonina Boyarskaya. The theater lodged in the building, constructed by merchant Likhatsky specially for touring troupes in the corner of Krasnaya and Dlinnaya streets (now the former cinema “Russia”). The theater was called “northern”. Its walls was decorated with frescos, the hall for 900 places was lit by white, green and red light in turn. A special apparatus, illuminating the façade in form of northern lights. Hence its name. The building of the Northern theater was passed to the Theater of musical comedy at absolute disposal. New art director – Nicholas Edigarov was appointed in two years. For the first time were carried out plays: “Wedding in Malinovka”, Nightingale garden”, “The hundredth tiger”. And now the theater will glad you with new plays.
The Krasnodar regional puppet theater opens its doors for little spectators. Krasnodar regional state puppet theater exists since 1939 as a professional creative collective. Children’s (Russian) writer S. Marshak was one of its founding fathers. On the stationary area (for 370 persons) besides demonstration of plays are performed dramatized performances: “Devotion into spectators”, “Holiday of ABC book”, “Book’s week”, “Pancake week”, “Christmas games”, “Farewell ball of the first teacher” and others. The theater has its branch in Armavir city. The theater annually arranges international festival of puppet theaters “ART-VISIT” in Krasnodar. The theater took part in international festivals in Lebanon, Germany, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Czechia, Belorussia, Poland, has awards, prizes, diplomas. The theater works out and inculcates into life new forms of collaboration with other theaters and creative collectives, searches new ways of development of its opportunities, its is a initiator of “Puppet theater – XXI century” creation.
Kuban Academic Cossack chore
Kuban Academic Cossack chore, originating in 1811, when a Military singing chore, the founder of which was Rossinsky and Bursak, emerged in Ekatherinograd, is famous in the whole world. Art of Kuban Cossack chore is marked off with numerous high rewards and perfect victories in Russia and abroad. The chore is twice a laureate of All-Russian contents of state Russian folk chores, a laureate of State prize of Ukraine of Shevchenko, a laureate of many international folk festivals. For its services the chore acquired rank “academic” in 1993, and in 1998 it was awarded with order of Friendship of peoples. Representing Russian culture in the world, chore, by words of the foreign press, performs in the same rank with such collectives as the State symphony orchestra of Saint-Petersburg Philharmonic Society and the Bolshoi theater.
Adult spectators should visit Palace of arts “Premier”. The Palace had been built for several years – it was a real Komsomol building site. Owner of the building has changed during 20 years. Initially in the house of culture there were about 30 various children’s circles, every day they were visited by more than a thousand children. Creative studios worked actively, festivals and contents were arranged. However 8 years later after opening the building was given in rent to one of private theaters. For 2 years of its work spectators could see only one play. 10 years ago an owner of the Palace of culture enjoying full rights became creative association “Premier”. The building acquired a new status – palace of arts. Nowadays it is a real cultural center of not only the city but also the krai: dramatized performances, rock-concerts and pop-stars’ performances are arranged here every year.
And those who like to dance all the night long should visit night club “Heavens”. “Heavens” are musical novelties of world leaders of dancing industry, super sound, laser show, three functioning bars. The night club draws attention of club music lovers, both atmospheric and qualitative sound.
Many people take a great interest in body-building. In Krasnodar there is a special museum. The Museum of Body-building is a unique phenomenon. The museum is situated in one of the basements-“weights rooms” of the city. The exposition contains weights, barbells, home gyms, with which Krasnodar body-builders really worked, when body-building was a criminally liable kind of sports. Near there are photos of these body-builders, having now the title of master of sports and World-class athletes. Besides that there are many educating information for fledgeling sportsmen. The hall, in the museum is situated, operates in its direct destination.
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Some useful advices for tourist
The best time for therapeutic programs is off-season from September till June. As a rule, at this time prices of sanatorium vouchers are more available. You shouldn’t come to the resort when exacerbation and in the period of infectious disease. You may bring children from other climatic zone in Sochi beginning from age of 4 when a child has already formed adaptive mechanisms.
On the really wonderful place in 65 km from Krasnodar is situated a balneotherapeutic resort – the Hot Spring. Climate here is a temperate with hot summer, soft autumn and white winter. The Hot Spring can compare with Anapa. This resort is surrounded by mountains, stands in fresh greenery and famous hot springs. The variety of mineral waters opens a wide range for treatment at this resort
Rest in Primorsko Akhtarskoe
Local inhabitants their small town, situated on the coast of Sea of Azov is called Akhtari. Former Turkish stronghold with funny name Akhtar-bakhtar ( in translation from Turkic languages means “white cliff at the seacoast”). Later Akhtar redoubt, where was created settlements of the Black sea Cossacks.
Almost 250 km from Krasnodar there is a town Yeisk on the coast of the Sea of Azov. This town is situated on the high steep shore of Taganrog's bay. Yeisk is not one of the economic center of Near Azov region, but also is a good climate resort. There is a temperate continental climate with a soft white winter, fresh spring and warm summer.