The mention of this town dates to 1152 year. At that time, on the bank of Sula river appeared a stronghold of Kostroma, had erected by Jury Dolgoruky. The scientists suppose that the name of the town appeared from «Kostor» that mean « any fortified place, stronghold». According to another version, the name of the town is the old pagan Slavonic word, which is mean a holiday celebrated in Summer in ritual games time in honour of God of Sun Yarila.
It should visit Kostroma, in oder to feel the old spirit, touch it, get feeling of enthusiastic pacification from residence time of ancient town. The town is disposed to long walking on streets.
One of the main historic monuments of Kostroma is Ipatjevsky monastery. This monastery was placed at the confluence of the Kostroma and Volga.
There are several versions of this temple's origin: according to one version, based on church legend, the temple appeared in 1275 year. Vasily Kvashnya erected the first stone of the temple in time of invasion. Another version tells that a creator of it was Tatar tsar – murza Tchet. According to this fact, this temple was appeared in 1330 year. The legend tells, that Tchet, going to Moscow to the tsar Ivan Kalita, but in his way Tchet he felt to have been ached, as a result had to halt at that place, where now there is the monastery. In time of Tchet's illness, an apostle Phillipe, saint martyr Ipatiy and Blessed Virgin appeared in his dreams. This event became deciding: Tchet had adopted Christianity, had being a lector, and built the temple of Saint Trinity. Besides, from Tchet had begun the family tree of noblemen Godunov, they took a part in the monastery's fate, where buried their ancestor: under their patronage, at the temple was built a workshop of making books. By the Godunov's family decision, there were carried out the sacred vestments, cult things, decorated with precious stones, painted the icons. All of that was included into exposition of modern monastery. Beside, a wonderful library was collected by the Godunov, which named Ipatjevskaya chronicle, being been one of the main source,where were kept all information about Ancient Russia.
In 1610 year the monastery was included in Russian History, thanks to one event. At that year Russia suffered from Polish – Lithuanian intervention. Michael Romanov with his family found a shelter in the walls of this monastery. In 1613 year to this land were sent the moscow messengers and they offered him to be a tsar of all Russia. As a result in Troizky cathedral of the temple was served the first Te Deum for Russia saving from the troubled times, and for benediction of new tsar of Russia. After that, this monastery became a holy residence for the Romanov. For a long time the icon of the Mother of God belonged to the Romanov was keeping at this temple.
The history of two dynasties the Godunov and the Romanov reserved themselves a memory in the architecture of monastery. Two clans as if «divided» the temple on two parts: The Old town, building in the Godunov's resources in 1586-90 years, and the New – was an investment of the Romanov, which was built to the Old town, by order of Michael Romanov.
Now on the territory of the monastery is kept only several temples and living quarters. However, in former times, its ensemble consisted of workshops, wooden baths, wells and not big bricked factory.
The main sight of the Old town is «Troizky cathedral». This cathedral was used as a summer temple, where had carried out some ceremonial divine service. The other services were carried out in the church of the birth of Blessed Virgin, which couldn't be saved for present days.
Rather unusual image of «Divine justice», placing above the main west entrance, always drew the attention of guests. On this canvas having been painted the unique scene of monak's seducing, that being not corresponded with church canons: the demons brought the depraved women and vine to priests. This image and other, placed on the west wall, on the portal and columns belonged to the brush of Guriy Nikitin and his artel. They are considered to be the high point of mastery of the iconic artist and one of the best monument of XVII century.
The other interesting sight of the cathedral is an iconostasis, made at the end of XVIII cent. To reach this iconostasis one should be passed three entrances, decorated with iron doors, having been painted by gold over back. On these images the scene of Lady day and the prophets can be known.
There is a tsar place at this cathedral, placing at the «coffin chamber», there were buried parents of Boris Godunov .
Almost all constructions having been kept for present days were rebuilt. The Troizky cathedral was demolished in 1649 year, as the result of blowing up a gun-powder, which was placed at the basement of the cathedral. Archiereisky and Bratsky cathedral were rebuilt too. The construction of the temple of St. Christephan and Daria – is the only in Russia temple devoted to these martyrs. The building of this temple was began in 1840 year by the decision of Nikolay I, having visited the Ipatjevsky cathedral in 1834 year. The author of the church project was the famous architect, the creator of gathered the temple of Christ Saviour in Moscow.
The chambers of Romanov boyards, siding with Bratsky case having been called thanks to the historical event, which result became a coronation of Michael Romanov.
At that places lived next tsar in time of Polish-Lithuanian intervention. The main architect F. Richter, having worked on these buildings, tried of increasing the construction a pompous appearance, being evidence of that place was a «cradle» of ruling dynasty. And in 1839 year in front of chambers appeared more one symbol of Romanov clan – reminded column.
The wall of this monastery didn't avoid changing. Since XVI century their length and thickness continued increasing.
By legend, the New town was built right at that place, where the new tsar having been seen of people.
The only stone construction was erected on its territory in 1721 year. First of all this construction was meant for ruling monastery's patrimony, and later became an alms – house. In soviet time, the territory of New town formed the museum exposition od wooden architecture: the church buildings were sent there. One of these copies is a wooden church of the Blessed Virgin Cathedral, built in 1552 year.
Near was placed the church of Ioann Bogoslov, erected in 1681-87 years, at the place of two having been burnt temples, that's why to present days some elements of these constructions are kept.
So, on the west wall there is an image of Nikolay Chudotvorez , and on the east – Ioann Bogoslov. The church composition reminded a ship – such composition was established in XVII century: refectory and hipped ring joined five – domed church. But if to see to this construction from a distance, as two couples wouldn't been seen. The same (central and side couples), they are notable and look like a cross. Almost all frescos of the temple, written by artel of Fedor Loginov, connect with look of the Virgin Maria. On the opposite side of the river Kostroma, parallel the Ipatjevsky monastery was placed another monastery? Getting the name «Bogoslovlensky». This temple kept itself for present days in new appearance. This temple is considered to be erected in XV cent. However, the true date is not famous.
The first stone buildings appeared in 1565 year. This was a cathedral of Christ theology, erected by the initiative of metropolitan Makariy. The first look of this building couldn't been kept, this templ was rebuilt in XIX century. Considerable changes wounded another constructions – wall towers.
The only building kept itself for present day, being rebuilt in imitation of the ring.
Going from Bogoslovensky monastery to the side, which had placed not far from park, one can see «the arbour of Ostrovsky». It is a round eight – columned construction, once being beloved by great dramatists, who had had a rest in Kostroma.
«The view from this arbour down and up over the Volga, which we have never seen still», - wrote the writer. And surely, the panorama, opening from this place, creates a great impression.
It makes mention of being lacking the typical Kremlin in Kostroma. Nevertheless, on the territory, where now place town center and park, was the Kremlin. Discoveries of archaeologists and chronicles, which had been kept, allowed to create for offsprings the look of this construction. By their protection were sieged yards of tsar, nobles, foreigns and also monasteries. There were placed the main cathedrals of Kostroma – Troizky and Uspensky, Krestovovozdvizhensky, voevode yard and important for the siege of the town house granary and smithy.
On the Volga quay, on the place of Kozhevennoy Slobodi, there is a church - «Resurrection on Debr», built in 1645-51 years. It is the only temple in Kostroma, which was built in XVII century.
Tourist liked this temple with his lightness and decoration. Such effect is reached by construction of the building. From far away one can notice 12 green heads. In front of holy entrance the mythological beings welcome guests: lion-the symbol of power, unicorn-the symbol of chastity, pelican-the symbol of immortality and revival. The appearance of this church draws attention to the colour of hers. Internal interior is interested the wall – paintings, which, probably, were made by Guriy Nikitin.
On the other bank of Volga there are two monuments of architecture – churches – Ilinskaya and Preobraxzhenskaya. The first is interested in coping the whole appearance of non – kept Uspensky cathedral. The fence and gates are the evidence of this fact. Another fact is also interested in placing of the village «Gorodishe», belonged to boyarynia Morozova, who had painted in canvas of Boris Kusdodiev.
Preobrazhenskaya church was built in 1685 year on the means of parish. To beginning of XX century, this construction was lost all five heads and hipped ring.
If you want to know more information about this town, you should visit the museums – the museum of Ivan Susanin. Susanin is known to be a native of Kostroma.
The united historic – architectural state museum of Kostroma was created in 1958 year for keeping the ancient russia monument of architecture – Ipatjevsky monastery.
The united art reserved museum of Kostroma keeps the collections of Ancient Russia Art, Russia Art of XVIII century an other interesting collections of region art.
The municipal art gallery of Kostroma was created not so late in 1996 year. The main task of this gallery is to show audience with a large collection of modern works. The collections of this museum consist of different works from other region of Russia.