Caucasian Mineral Waters
Caucasus is one of the most beloved destinations of Russian travelers. And not
by chance – you will find such combination of the wonderful weather, landscapes,
which take the breath away, the unique flora, ancient monuments and mineral
resources nowhere else.
Caucasian Mineral Waters are situated in the middle of 700-km isthmus between
the Black and Caspian seas on the northern slopes of the Main Caucasian ridge,
only in 90 km from the highest mountain in Europe – Elbrus, a two-headed top of
which is well seen almost on the whole territory of the region. Occupying the
territory, area of which is 6,000 sq km, the region is noted for large contrasts
of natural settings.
In the environs of Caucasian Mineral Waters there are many wonderful places
which attract by beauty of the nature, interesting tourist’s routes. People
gravitate to these places owing to nearness of mountain tops, beautiful
intermontane valleys with smart verdure, fresh Alpine meadows, noisy azure-blue
waterfalls, impetuous clear rivers, abundance in mineral springs, only clear,
always cool air, saturated with phytoncides with tart smell of rosin and needles
. Bus excursions to Teberda, Dombai, Arkhiz, Baksanskoe gorge, Tchegemskoe
gorge, to the foot of Elbrus, the Blue lakes.
The history of Caucasian mineral watersSalving
force of local mineral springs has been famous to native people. Legends, where
the truth quaintly intertwines with poetic fantasy, narrate about it. An echo of
such legend contains also in the name of one of popular local mineral waters –
narzan. This word is translated into Russian as “bogatyr’s drink”, “bogatyrs’
water”. Narzan was considered a source of force of tribe Marthu, which
supposedly lived in the Northern Caucasus formerly.
First official data about Caucasian Mineral Waters appeared under Peter I.
Peter entrusted surgeon Shober to search “in our country waters which could be
used for treating for diseases”. After the trip the doctor informed about
“greenhouses” of Pyatigorje and “fairly sour spring”, intending, probably,
Kislovodsk narzan. Academician I. A. Guldenshtedt came here in 1773.
Konstantinogorskaya fortress, which laid the foundation of Pyatigorsk, was laid
not far from Goryachaya mountain in 7 years. And at the end of XVIII century the
famous naturalist Pallas carried out analysis of spring Narzan.
On the 24th of April of 1803 by decree of Alexander I Caucasian Mineral
Waters were declared a medicinal region of state significance. Since this
historical moment Caucasian Mineral Waters have become state property, they were
included in the range of medical institutes and put under governmental
supervision. And it is not by chance. There is no other place in the world where
so many natural resources, the most valuable in their medicinal characteristics:
various mineral waters, the richest deposit of silt sulfide mud, picturesque
landscapes, salubrious climate. It was modern to go to Caucasian Mineral Waters
in the circle of Russian aristocracy. Most of them brought large retinue with
them: from servants, cooks and doctors to dancers and musicians. Quite for a
long time mineral water was used for taking a hot bath twice a day and course of
treatment took the whole summer.
Nevertheless till the 60-s of XIX century condition of the resort left much
to be desired. The way from the capital was long and uncomfortable, the springs
were not protected, nothing was built and as the result millions of golden
rubles settled abroad. The technological progress helped to change the situation
– in 1875 steam-engine replaced coachmen. French engineer Jul Fransua,
participating in accomplishing of the famous European resorts, was engaged in
serious development of the springs. The foreigner was stricken. “In the whole
Europe there is no such wonderful combination of so various springs on the quite
small territory. No doubt with carrying out of suggested technical works
Caucasian waters should get into lane of the best European waters”, - he wrote.
Owing to Fransua the resort acquired scientifically worked out principles of
scheduled exploring and arrangement of mineral water springs.
During the civil war resort life in Caucasian Mineral waters stopped. Decree
“About medicinal areas of national significance” plaid an important role in
their further development and on the 18th of April of 1920 Caucasian Mineral
Waters was declared resorts of national significance again. Pyatigorsk State
Balneal Institute with four clinics in all cities-resorts, which has played a
great role in development of resort business in Russia henceforward, was
established in the same year. And already in 1925 10 sanatoriums functionated in
Kislovodsk, 4 – in Pyatigorsk, 6 sanatoriums in Essentuki and Zheleznovodsk. New
sanatoriums were built up-tempo.
In the years of the Great Patriotic war all sanatoriums were reequipped into
the hospitals. 68 hospitals worked here before occupation of Caucasian Mineral
Waters by Fritz (August, 1942), 83 hospitals were organized after occupation
(January 11, 1943). Over 900,000 soldiers and officers, 82 % of whom returned in
the army field forces, got medical aid.
The resorts of the Caucasian Mineral Waters acquired their modern look in the
70-s when most presently functional sanatoriums, rest homes, tourist complexes,
in which up to one and a half million natives of the USSR and foreign tourists
rested and received medical treatment per a year, were built.
Nowadays Caucasian Mineral Waters is an especially protected
ecological-resort region of federal significance. It is 120 mineral springs,
more than a hundred sanatoriums and rest homes, a natural radon and medicinal
mud of Tambukan lake, abundance of sunny days in summer and soft, warn winter.
Variety of methods allows to treat here almost all diseases. Caucasian Mineral
Waters has the reputation of pearl of Caucasus by right; it takes only an hour
to drive around four city-resorts only for an hour. Resembling each other like
brothers, each of them have individuality.
On a visit of Nayanda-healerHaving come to
Caucasian Mineral Waters for treating and resting, you may improve your health
with less charges, without wearisome flights and passages, enjoy forest’s calm
or inhale fresh mountain air, luxuriate in the careful and unintrude sun.
Treatment combines with walks and other procedures. The route corresponds to
appointed regime of activity. The best time for walks is when you hurry nowhere,
in cool time in summer, in winter – in warm time of a day. It is better to have
a walk in light clothes and cosy shoes, at slow free pace.
Application of mineral water favors to acceleration of adaptation to
the local climate, enforcement of immunodefences, disturbed by a disease.
Mineral water, which is used, have an effect on organism not only by chemical
and gas composition but also by temperature, duration of a procedure, density of
Mineral baths affect by its temperature (usually 35-37 C?), chemical
and gas composition. Duration of a procedure in 6-20 minutes (not longer) is
considered to be optimal. Mineral are not indifferent to an organism. They are
taken only when they are indicated. You shouldn’t come to the procedure either
on an empty stomach or right after taking much food. Rest should precede the
procedure therefore you should come in time.
Internal implication of mineral watersFood
treatment by mineral water is considered to be one of main methods of treatment
of large number of diseases for many years. Regulating systems of organism
mobilize its energy, metabolic processes become more intense while usage of
mineral water. Owing to its variety, mineral waters of Caucasian Mineral Waters
are used in treatment of wide specter of diseases. When mineral water gets to an
organism, it have an influence on receptors of digestive apparatus and processes
both in the cavity of digestive apparatus and also in the mucosa of
gastrointestinal tract. Chemical components of mineral waters, reaching blood,
influence receptors of blood vessels, organs of endocrine systems and nervous
system, also influencing nervous and endocrine control of organism and its
Mud cureMud of Big Tambukan lake is used in
Caucasus Mineral Waters for treating for pack and applications. Silt black
sulfide mud, sapropelic mud, peat are used for mud cure. Silt sulfide mud is
black, rich in salts, sulphurous iron, contains hydrogen sulphide, methane,
carbonic acid. Influence of peloid on organism is conditioned by a complex of
irritants such as temperature of mud, chemical and mechanical elements. Unique
method of treatment - radonotherapy (waters, containing radon, are used
for treatment of diseases of nervous and cardiovascular system, respiratory and
digestion apparatuses, bones, joints and muscles, gynaecological disorders,
metabolism diseases and others) – includes medicinal influence on organism with
the help of medicinal element radon which is used for water and air baths,
bathing in medicinal pools, ablution, microclyster, inhalations.
Inhalation therapy is used for treating of sick men with upper air
passages diseases. Therapeutic action of inhalation is formed of influence of
saline and gas components of mineral water and moist warmth.
Medical cabinets, comfortable wards, three and four meals a day, covered
pools, gyms, tennis-courts.
Symphonic, organ, concert halls, philharmonic society, numerous museums,
show-rooms, restaurants, cafes, offering dishes of Caucasian and European
cuisines, numerous routes (by Lermontov’s places, cities of Caucasian Mineral
Waters, where even names – Narzan gallery, Temple of Air, Narzan baths, Resort
boulevard and many others remind you that you are in Russian resorts) wait for
There are also excursions about environs of Caucasian Mineral Waters, Dambai,
Arkhiz, Elbrus region, to Medoviy waterfalls. And trip to Terek stud-farm where
thoroughbred Arabic horses are reared!
Perfect restaurants, bars, casinos, night clubs have emerged in recent years,
saunas, billiard parlours work in the sanatoriums. And programs, which are
offered for rest by managers of sanatorium clubs, won’t allow to have a tedious
time, never mind for how much time your ticket is – for two or three weeks.
Performances of Pyatigorsk theatre of operetta will be offered to
Doors of White Villa, at present memorial museum-manor of famous
artist-Itinerants N. Y. Yaroshenko, are opened for painting-lovers. You won’t
pass by former dacha of T. I. Shalyapin, which is also museum now. An excursion
to the famous winery Beshtau-Tempelgoff waits for those who want to try famous
wines of Northern Caucasus.
Charm of Caucasian Mineral Waters was highly valued by many great Russians –
from members of emperor’s family to Russian creative elite, spoilt by success.
Not by chance Shalyapin built his dacha here. And if apprehension continues
tease you still, don’t put off – set out on your journey! Resort Caucasian
Mineral Waters is capable to assure all in its uniqueó oneness!
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I'm interested visiting Russia for a week. I definitely wanted to see the Mineral Waters and Mt. Elbrus,
Treatment with dead see mud and salt gives good results, I want to know about Caucasian mud treatment
HI, i wish contact with fish hatchery in city / goryage klog/ thanks