Excursions about Russia
Russia has a huge potential both for development of domestic travel and
admitting of foreign travelers. It has all what is necessary – a huge territory,
rich historical and cultural heritage, and in some regions – the primeval, wild
nature. Russia has great variety of tourist routes. Here are some of them. They
will help you to keep your head and not to miss anything interesting.
Geographical and climatic peculiarities of Russia
Russia is an unusual country, attracting many people by its spaces. Here
there is something to be seen and visited: they are city-museum Saint-Petersburg
and imposing capital Moscow, snow-white mountains of Caucasian and hot resorts
of Krasnodar krai, boundless expanses of Siberia and the enigmatic Far East.
The territory of Russia occupies a part of the Eastern Europe and Northern
Asia. Landscapes of Russia owing to its scales are various – from bogs to arid
steppes and barren-grounds tundra. A considerable part of Russian territory is
covered with tundra and taiga and more than 60% of the territory is permafrost.
Three fourth of Russian territory is occupied by plains.
Mountain relief prevails in the east and the south of the country. Caucasian
mountains are situated in the south of European part. In Russia there are about
120 thousand rivers, length of which is more than 10 km. Rivers of Russia belong
to basins of three oceans: the Arctic, the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans.
Russia is a country of lakes. Their total number – saline and fresh – is about 2
million. The great part of Russia lies in temperate climatic zone. The north of
the country – and a part of continental areas – is situated in arctic and
subarctic zones, the south – The Black Sea coast of Caucasus – is in the
Religions and peoples of Russia
Constant population of Russia is 132 million people. They make up more than
100 nationalities, speaking in their own languages. Russian is a state language
and is used everywhere. At the same time a language and dialects of this or that
people are widely used, the national press is issued, schools, teaching native
language, work in the places of compact habitation of it. Russians profess
Christianity (Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism), Islam, Buddhism, Judaism.
At present time each confession freely profess its religion, believers may visit
Orthodox churches, Catholic churches, mosques, synagogues, Buddhist temples and
On the territory of Russia there are very many interesting,
beautiful temples, monasteries, Roman-Catholic churches, mosques, datsans. They
are like are a piece of the ancient history. Lets looks at some of them.
Among them is temple of Christ the Savior in Moscow. Interior of the temple
corresponds to external grandeur. Height of the inner space is 79 m, the average
area of frescos is more than 22 thousand sq m. The main sacred things of the
temple are an icon of the Nativity of Christ, which was brought by Apostolic
Patriarchy Alexis from Bethlehem, six original restored canvases of painter V.
P. Vereschagin and an original throne of Apostolic Patriarchy Tikhon in the
An upper part of the gallery, framing a principal, refectory part of the
temple is a loft. Only small excursion groups may visit the loft. In the
southern wing of the lofty there is a temple for the sake of Nicholas, a
protector of emperor Nicholas, under whom building of the first temple began. A
side-chapel in the northern wing is devoted to Saint Blessed Prince Alexander
Nevski, a protector of Alexander I, who vowed to erect a temple to the Savior,
Alexander II, who had been building this temple during 25 years, Alexander III,
who consecrated the temple.
Ensemble of Balaam monastery, which was founded in 14
The monastery was famous for its severe regulations because it was often used
as a prison. Spaso-Preobrazhensky cathedral, a belfry, a gate church of Peter
and Paul, Uspenskaya church, a hotel, horsy and water-supply houses,
constructions of White and Red cells.
Ivolga Datsan is a center of Spiritual Administration of Buddhists of Russia
and its head Bandido-khambolama. The principle religious building, the main
temple of the datsan, was built and consecrated in 1972. The most esteemed and
sacred statue to Buddha in a pose, which call the Earth to be a witness,
occupies central position in the temple. 16 devotees are depicted around the
statue. Lower Buddha’s statue there is a portrait and a throne of Dalai Lama
XIV, on which nobody has right to sit. Religious ceremonies are conducted in
Azimov mosque was erected in 1810. A one-storied wooden mosque without a
minaret, which had existed till 1851, was built then. One of the richest
merchants of the parish, a head of Tatar city hall Mustapha Nasirovitch Azimov
(1780-1865) built a new wooden mosque with a minaret in its place. One of the
best mosques in Kazan.
Natural monuments of Russia
The nature of Russia is unique. A present time on the territory of the
Russian Federation there about 2,000 officially registered state monuments of
the nature. In each nook of Russia there is its own pearl. In the north of the
Astrakhan region, at the border with Kazakhstan there is a unique Baskunchak
lake – one of the largest deposits of salt in the world. From far away it seems
as if the steppe is covered with a crust of ice. Local salt has strange names:
granatka (pomegranate), glazok (eye), tchugunka. Here one can find a real
masterpiece – an old boot of salt. Healing peloid lies under the salt. The salty
crust occupies much larger area than the lake itself and a land, lack of plants,
which extend a zone of salinization to the very horizon, begins behind it.
Freakish grass, resembling cactus, comes out here and there. Perhaps only it is
capable to stand such concentration of salt.
Near the lake there is another sight – a mountain Bolshoe
Bogdo. It is prominent against a steppe background. Its height is 152
m. The most amazing fact is that it grows, becoming 2 mm higher every year!
Because of it Bogdo is called “Growing mountain”.
If you want to see a fragment of a paradise garden, come to Astrakhan from
July to the middle of September – it is a time of lotus flowering. Water
“fields” are covered with wonderful flowers, exhaling delicate aroma. There is
hardly another place in Russia where you may see such picture. Lotus blossoms in
July – beginning of August, and in September fetuses ripen – tasty nutlets of
Large and small rivers and brooks carry their water into the Baikal by rash
streams, noisy waterfalls, cutting through cliffs. It is the deepest lake
keeping one fifth part of world reserves of drinking water. And what water it
is! Take a gulp, and it seems that that you power is doubled. Nature if Baikal
is various from other region. On the south slope of mountains there are a
coloured motley grass and deciduous taiga. In spring among green larches is
grown a Dauri rhododendron. At the beginning of summer all steppes are turned
into a plenty of growing plants, and look like as a large green carpet. Upper
over slopes the taiga is changed into ceder grove. This region is rich of flora
«Forest and water – beauty of earth» - tells popular wisdom.
In Valday, as no other region, this beauty of nature follows to a man anywhere.
Mighty pines, thin green firs with sharp tops, refined birches, and beautiful
asps are grown on the picturesque hills of Valday, that creates unusual
landscape. Individual uniqueness are added by numerous rivers and lakes, they
are more than 300. from these places many river are begun, all of them are full
of fishes and crystal pure, one of them is rapid, another is quite. But each of
them determine the prosperity of this large territory of all European part of
Siberian cedere is a beauty and national pride of Russia, it is a richness of
our country, symbol of power, health and mighty, it is the symbol of stability
and longevity. The first culture of Siberian ceder in European part of Russia
was in XVI century, when was laid Tolgoskaya ceder grove near Yaroslavl, in 8 km
from the town. This forest if beautiful in any season. Due to thick trees it is
dark at the forest.
Archipelago of Kizi is interested as a monument of nature, history and
architecture. Islands formed a complex and tangled labyrinth. Here one can see
various landscapes, rocks and low shores, high grasses meadows and also tangle
of water plants. «Visit cart» of the archipelago are sea gulls and morwennols.
It also should mention a unique monument of wooden architecture – Kizhi
Traveling over Russia
Zolotoe koltso of Russia «Golden Circle of Russia»
Rout over ancient towns of Central Russia, on the north – west from Moscow
gave a popularity as «Golden Circle» of Russia.
Golden Circle - is a vivid encyclopedia of Russian ancient architecture.
Wonderful landscapes turned out not less exciting sight. On the picturesque
banks of the Volga, numerous rivers and lakes there are many wonderful places
for picnics. Zolotoe koltso is not only architecture, but also immersion in the
atmosphere of a provincial town with its calm, non-vanity, peace. All towns live
by particular life in their particular rhythm.
Many sights of Golden Circle
are included in the fund of UNESCO.
Moscow and Moscow region
Moscow is a great capital of Russia Federation, the largest economical,
political, scientific and cultural center of Russia.
Walking along the city –
is a pleasure. One can walk over the Red square, enter to the Kremlin, see the
unique collection of the «Diamond Fund», visit the best theatres and museums,
admire bridges and fountains. Moscow is unique, it combines the rapid tempo of
life in modern megalopolis and silent streets with beautiful parks.
In order to see all sights – palaces and parks, monuments and cathedrals,
museums and theatres, channels with refined bridges and the quay of the Neva,
one should be here no one week But one day in this city will be unforgettable.
Everyone who comes here and opens his own Petersburg.
If you wish delight in art, you should go to the Hermitage Museum. On the
first floor there are the works of ancient times. On the second floor you get in
knightly hall, where you see armoury of middle age. You may also see Scythian's
gold, diamonds shine in all items of famous jeweller from the East and the West
Having seen the monument of «Copper Horseman», devoted to creator –
Peter the Great.
The Black sea coast and Caucasian mountains
The towns of the Black sea coast – Anapa, Gelendzhik, Tuapse, Sochi and Adler
attract not only lovers of beach rest, but also admirers of cognitive tourism.
There are little places where you can swimm at warm sea, than have a rest in
subtropics, and skiing.
There are a lot of palms, thin cypress, you can meet
ancient cultural monuments.
Kamchatka is a unique part of the Earth, where nature keeps itself in natural
wild condition. Only here one can see the primitive landscapes and nature
civilization. Kamchatka is a region of volcanoes, geysers and thermal springs.
Natural resources of Kamchatka region are inimitable in its variety.
The Northern Russia
If one looks at the map , the north – east of Vologda region seems far far
nook, cut off from the large civilization. But in remote areas of Russia there
are also many places, capable to surprise even worldly-wise travelers. On the
bank of the river Sukhona at its junction with the Yug river, by radiant
whiteness, as if the holiday of centuries, the Great Ustyug – a miracle-city, a
fairy tale and a song of the northern Russia, is seen.
The surrounding area
represents a gently rolling plain. The right bank of the Sukhona river is low,
flat, with a flood-lands terrace, width of which is up to three kilometers. The
left bank is high, steep.