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Ecological tourism

Every year eco tourism is more popular, it helps people, tired from wordly vanity, to fill in their lost forces and energy during communication with nature and watching for it.
There are many interesting places in Russia, which are suitable for ecotourism. By the way, right ecotourism. Swimming at the lake and rivers, fishing, berries, Russian baths, fish soup all of that help you to fill your forces.
Social potential of ecotourism, defining as a kind of tourism in the beginning of 90th years, may be considered as a considerable, because in Russia as no other country, was developed sport tourism.
In the whole the nature itself represents the ideal conditions for successful development of ecotourism:variety, uniqueness, attractiveness and extensiveness of Russian landscapes.
There are 35 national parks, 100 state nature reserves with total area 33,5 millions hectares, 68 state nature preserves of federal meaning, 2976 state nature preserves of regional meaning with total area 67,8 million hectares,  1024 nature monuments, 31 natural parks of regional meaning, with total area 13,2 million hectares.


Ecological tourism zones

The north in European part of Russia

The north in European part of Russia is a severe, silent tundra, endless taiga forests, numerous lakes (among them and two biggest in Europe Ladozhskoe and Onezhskoe), brown karelian rivers, islands and fiords of the White sea. These places have a big popularity among ecotourists and admirers of water sport.
Spring and autumn this place becomes a refuge for migrate water birds, especially ducks. In summer you can meet at these places eider duck, and also watch for nesting birds, the largest one lives in the Kandalakshsky reserve. The sea serves for them the place of permanent inhabitation of water mammals (seal, sea hare) and season staying of cetacean.
 Broad whitefish, peled, cisco, whitefish, Arctic cisco, Siberian white salmon have a great meaning for keeping them under ward.

Green circle

Green circle includes itself seven conserved natural territories three preserves Oksky, Prioksko-terrace, Central-forest and four national parks Ugra, Meschera, Plescheevo lake and Smolensk Poozerje. Each territory has its peculiarities, its visit card. They are relic old fir-groves, oak woods and pine forests, rare species of plants, animals and birds, picturesque landscapes, bison nursery, a center on rehabilitation of bear-cubs-orphans and a nursery of wild species of cranes, museums and monasteries. Travels about Green circle of Moscow dont require special physical training and special outfit.
The state national park of Sochi
It is one of the first parks in Russia. Its area is 191 thousands hectares, was created in 1983 year with an aim of keeping and restoration of unique nature complexes on the territory along sea coast of the Black sea from the river Shepsi to the river Psoy. But the north east border of the park comes along watershed of the Main Caucasus ridge. About 200 men of state forest guarding serve the territory of the park in 15th forestry.

Here are grown 165 species of growing wild arboreal plants. Animal world of the national park make up about 70 species of mammals animals: brown bear, badger, dear, lynx, roe, marten, otter, lackal, wild cat, wild boar, hare, squirrel, etc. There are about 120 thousands birds, birds of passages are appeared in the forest in spring and autumn ( geese, motley woodpecker, swans, pigeons, quail), and also dwell 11 species of reptile and 7 species of amphibious.
About 40 river and streams of the Black Sea basin flow along the territory of the national park, three of them have a length more than 50 km Mzmita, Shakhe, Psou.

Katun reserve

The nature of Katun preserve is unique. Elements of temperate continental relief of Alpine type with typical elements of central Asiatic extremely continental relieves join here. The Katun ridge with the highest point of Siberia, Belukha mountain, (4,506 m above the sea level) stretches from the north-west to the south-east. Glaciation here is the largest in Altai (almost 400 glaciers with total area about 300 sq km.
It is necessary to make ones way through obstructions of huge trunks of trees to see waterfalls here. The spectacle is worth! The first two waterfalls vertically fall into a small cup, raising heaps of sprays which are spread by the wind. Around bare rocks. Their color changes from red to grey, from yellow to almost black. The third waterfall can be reached almost on all fours. Roots of trees, which can be used as stairs, help. Rocks here are so high that tourists have to throw back their head to see pine-trees, growing above. It seems as if the whole gorge is filled with the waterfall. It fills the air with drops of water and, falling down from 75 m of height, blows out and hits against stones, thunders, deafening.

Tazheranskaya steppe

The unique world of the Baikal coast is Tazheransk steppe: a shelter of emperors eagle, a palette of blooming motley grass. Nowhere else in the world you will meet tick trefoil zunduki, astragalus olchonensis, oxytrope. Landscape of Tazheransk steppe is unique. The hills, as if rising out of eternity, resemble dinosaurs. Parting they open the expanse for herds of swift-footed horses. Tethers with coloured ribbons, a silhouette of eagle is seen in the blue sky. Sensation of eternity and perfection of the world, created here, fill you with peace and beauty.
In winter you may visit a castle of Snowy queen. Cape Khoboi is turned into a fabulous ice castle. Heavy autumn waves remain on the rocks as ice spills of intricate forms. Two wave-cut grottoes from the north side of the cape turn into the halls of the icy palace. Cracks and margins of huge hummocks are formed from the side of the Big Baikal near Khoboi.
Ushanjy islands are one of wonders of the Baikal. Ushanji are famous for their seal. Here, in Ushantchiki, three small islands, there is its beach, where it goes out to stones and basks in the sun. Now one may observe seal in Tonkiy island. A viewing point was equipped with camouflage net and fit an informational shield in Russian and English. For the most part Baikal is a very beautiful but a severe krai. The snow lies on the slopes of its mountains even in summer.

Momsky park

Here there is water above ice of Ulakhan Tarin. Frazil Ulakhan-Tarin, yielding only Fedtchenko Peak in the Pamirs to its sizes and power is situated here. Its width is 5-7 km, length about 40 km, thickness of the ice reaches 7 m.
Another sight is Pobeda Peak (3,147 m), the highest point of the north-east of Siberia. Besides, on the territory of the park there is a volcano Balagan-Taas, mountain massifs and drink water from mineral springs, not yielding to famous Caucasian waters, and in some indices, even surpassing them.

The delta of the Lena

Forest-tundra species penetrate here by the valley and mountain species by Kharaulaksky mountains (the northern part of Verkhoyansky ridge). Here there is one of the largest preserve in Russia Ust-Lena. Its area is 1,433 thousand ha. Flora of the delta numbers about 370 sorts of higher plants, 106 sorts of mosses, 74 sorts of lichens. 121 species of birds, 71 species of which marked off in nesting, are found in the delta of the Lena. The most interesting nesting species are Bewicks swan, whooper-swan, brant, lesser white-fronted goose, little and Siberian eiders, merlin, peregrine, golden eagle, Ross and Sabines gulls. White crane and snow goose fly in. Black-capped marmot, northern creeper, lemming vole are found in the mountains. White whale, narwhal, walrus, sea hare, ringed seal are spread in the parts of the Laptev Sea, which are joining the delta of the Lena, and at Novosibirsk islands.
A real masterpiece, a decoration of the Lena river, the Lena poles, is created with the help of water, heat and freezes. Colonnades, towers, arches, cathedrals, indented walls are seen in their quaint form. Extension of the poles together with huge stone rocks farewell rocks along the bank of the Lena is 80 km. The poles rise above the Lena for several stages.

The Far East. Reserve Cedar honeydew

Surrounded with the Japan sea the southern part of the Far East is famous as northern jungles, as a place, where the east, the west, the north and the south combine in absolutely incredible way. Preserve Cedar honeydew is the only place in Russia where Far-Eastern leopard is found. Black bear, wild boar, roe, raccoon dog, badger, dappled deer are usual here. Rather rare birds nest here. Among them: mandarin duck, azure-winged magpie, night-heron. Pheasants are often found. And the Kedrovaya river is a good place for spawning of salmon fishes: hunchback salmon, cherry salmon, Siberian salmon. Bog birch, wood of which has special mechanical properties, are often found in the preserve. Together with legendary ginseng Korean cedar pine (cedar Korean), Far-Eastern lianas (actinidia, magnolia-vine, vine), spikenard, Eleuterococus, devil-club, Amur lilac, Amur corktree, 8 sorts of maples are also found.
 During two-hour walk about the ridges of Sikhote Alin, you will see subtropical forests of unique beauty, picturesque sea coasts, solemn Siberian landscapes and mountain tundra.

Lake Khanka and reserve Khansky

On the south of the Far East, near china border is situated an unusual place of nature, which consists of unique water bog land of lake Khanka basin. In 1990 year was formed the state nature reserve Khansky.
Lake Khanka is one of the largest fresh water reservoir of Asia. Water bog land of lake Khanka  - unique nature complex, where nesting and staying birds of passages, and one can meet with rare  and bog plants.

Kamchatka

Kamchatka is the most unique peninsula in Russia. Geysers well out of the ground near the volcanoes and pits with blue alga, which can live only in this water, resembling hot salty water in solution, boil up like with boiling water. You will be amazed by abundance in snowy tops, waterfalls and extensive malpaises. Slopes of the gorge shimmer with inconceivable colors, and in Kronotsky preserve you may visit world-famous Valley of Geysers. Sparkling jets of boiling water and steam suddenly blow out and rise for the height of tens meters. Each geyser has its regime. It seems as if they replace each other.
In summer and autumn rapid rivers of Kamchatka boil because of numerous salmons, moving to spawning. Not far from Kurils lake in the south of Kamchatka you will get a unique chance to observe brown bears, occupied with fishing. Walking along the bank will permit to observe colonies of sea birds and breeding-grounds of sea-lions, seals. Such rare expeditions as driving with the help of dogs teams around the volcano and etc.
 Narsans inhabitants call mineral waters of Kamchatka of different taste properties and colors in this way are found among knolls and volcanoes. Some of the springs are so mineralized that the whole periodic table accumulate around them in form of red, brown, grey thin efflorescence or scale, forming many-colored glades and cascades travertines.

And in the evenings hot bath waits for you. It is one of pleasures in Kamchatka. Sometimes water of a mineral spring is so hot that it is diluted with river water. Artificial pools with wooden bridges stand near the springs. But most of natural baths are, so called, wild. In any case bathing take away tiredness and blest repose spreads by the whole body.
Karelia

The gone world of a primeval forest with numerous lakes and bogs, connected by a net of brooks, give a refuge for the huge number of the most various birds and animals. The forest is situated in the way of migration of many species of birds. Innumerable flocks of gooses, swans, ducks and waders land here on the way to the north, the tundra. The forest is a refuge for reindeer, elk, wolf, brown bear, lynx, glutton, otter and marten. Among birds wood grouse and swallow are usual. White-tailed eagle is met along the banks of rivers and lakes.

The delta of the Volga

The delta of the Volga is the largest and an ecologically clean in the Europe. It is situated in the south-east of the central part of Russia. It begins to the north from Astrakhan where the large arm the Busan separates. For the whole its length from Astrakhan to rolls of the Caspian sea the delta is various, main arms, width of which is 0.3 0.6 km, are divided into numerous channels and branching creeks, width of which is up to 30 m. Where the Volga flows into the Caspian sea it members about 800 mouths. Large spaces of the delta are covered with flood-plain forests and reedbeds.

Saigas, gnawing animals, eagles, many reptiles and insects are usual in the semi-deserts. Egrets, pelicans, wild boars are typical for the Volga delta. About 500 sorts of plants, belonging to 82 families, were discovered on the territory of the Volga. The richest plants of these families are geni of wormwood, astragalus, sedge. Black, white-winged terns and scray are found in the delta. Among owls Strix aluco Linn, marsh owl, owlet, eagle-owl, scops-owl and long-eared owl are found in the lower reach of the Volga. You may also visit birds hotel. This name was given to a preserve.

Over 250 species of birds, many of which are entered in Red Data Book, are found in Astrakhan preserve in different season. Most of them are nested on the trees (herons, glossy ibis, cormorant), and some of them build floating nests (toadstools, bald-coots). Birds of Africa, Iran, India huge flocks of swans, gooses, ducks nest here. Some species of birds pelicans, herons, cormorants form colonies. A fabulous flower lotus of extraordinary size and color grows in the preserve! It is known in the Delta of the Volga for more than 200 years. Here it is called Caspian rose. Plantations of lotus a sea of blue-green leafs and pink flowers, exhaling soft aroma, - blossom from July to September. Eastern peoples consider lotus a symbol of purity and nobility.

The Central Siberia

Only here you may see endless primeval taiga expanses, rivers and lakes with pure water, rich flora and fauna. Landscapes of these places are picturesque and various: parks sandy pineries in the west, reserved cedar forests in the valley of the Yenisei river, dark coniferous forests, difficult of traverse, in the east, detritus and rocky precipices along the river banks, huge massifs of bogs in the watersheds. The basin of the middle Yenisei is the largest forest tract. It is a taiga, taiga and again taiga.
West Caucasus

The western part of the Big Caucasus is various in flora and fauna, their protection is not equal led not only in the Caucasian region but also among other mountain areas of the Europe and Western Asia. It is a territory, where large number of rare precinctive and relic sorts of plants and animals, being at stake of disappearance, are concentrated.

The territory is rich in picturesque objects: powerful waterfalls, pointed mountain tops (up to 3,360 m), rapid mountain rivers with clear water, clear mountain lakes, huge trees (imposing firs, height of which is up to 85 m and diameter more than 2 m), rare plants (orchids and others) and many others. Invaluable natural complexes have been kept in the Western Caucasus.

Teberda is a mountain climatic resort, situated at height of 1,260-1,300 m in the forest mountains of the western Caucasus, where a fan of very picturesque gorges stretches to a snow-covered heap of the Main Caucasian ridge. Not far there is a heart of alpinism and mountain tourism of Russia Dombai. It is an area of the primeval Caucasian nature and monuments of olden times, an area of the sun, rocks, fir forests, dazzling sparkling snow and pearly air.

Elbrus region is a tourist name of a part of the Bolshoi Caucasus from the western approaches to Elbrusto the basin of the Tchegem river to the east. Its south border passes by the Main Caucasian ridge. High clarity of the air and great number of hours of sunshine create here wonderful conditions both in summer and in winter. In number of sunny days the Elbrus region doesnt yield to such resorts as Dombai, Teberda, Krasnaya Polyana. A park of the Elbrus region admits 300 thousand visitors per a year.
Fauna of the Elbrus region is also various and rich in unique species, which are found nowhere else. They are Caucasian tur, Caucasian snowcock, , Caucasian black grouse, Caucasian lizard and ground beetle and others. Traces of wild boars, the number of which is large in mountain forests, are also found.




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On the territory of Russia there are 100 reserves, total area of which makes 33.55 mln ha, and 35 national parks with total area of 6.96 mln ha.

 
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