Cruises along Russia
The Volga is the largest river in Russia. Its length consists of more than 3690 km. It begins on Valday hill and flows in the Caspian sea. The river is under ice since the end of November – the beginning of December till March – it depends upon region. At present time the Volga is turned into the system of reservoirs, as the result drain of high water reduced, the river began to freeze and become clear of ice later. The Volga is joined the Baltic sea by Volgo – Baltic water way, with the White sea – North – Dvinsk water system and Belomor – Baikal channels.
More than half of fisheries catch in the inner reservoirs of Russia.
The Neva is a mouth of the Ladoga lake – connects Gulf of Finland with extensive inner basins of ladoga, Onega, Ilmen and other lakes. The river is short – a little more than 60 km, but quite rapid and deep. Navigation in the river is brisk, the banks are rendered inhabitable: cities Kirovsk, Ust-Izhor, Otradnoe, numerous settlements and holiday villages of Leningrad region. The Neva river is an important link of the Volga-Baltic water way.
The river-bed is formed of clay soil with large stones. The largest flow quantity is observed in May. At its flowing into the Gulf of Finland the Neva is divided into several arms forming an extensive delta, counting about 100 islands. The most significant arms of the delta are the Bolshaya Neva, the Malaya Neva, the Bolshaya Nevka, the Srednyaya Nevka and the Malaya Nevka. Several navigating channels, among which Elaginsky, Petrovsky, Galerniy and Korabelniy channels have navigating importance, lead to the mouth of arms from the sea through a sand-bar.
According to regime of the levels the Neva is divided into two parts: lower one – from the mouth to Ivanovskie rapids, where influence of the Gulf of Finland is observed, and upper one – from Ivanovskie rapids to the mouth, where influence of Ladoga lake is more noticeable. Sharp influence on the level of water in the Neva is exerted by winds. Rundown-run-up fluctuations of the water level are one of the peculiarities of the Neva. Run-up in the mouth of the Neva is usually accompanied with rundown in the source and conversely.
The Oka is the second confluent of the Volga according to size. The Oka begins in the Central Russian Upland, in 4 km from settlement Maloarkhangelsk. Length of the river from the source to Nizhny Novgorod is 1478 km. Climate of the basin is temperate-continental, monotonous along the whole length. Winds of the western direction prevail in summer.
On one bank of the Oka there are precipices, on the opposite bank – unbounded expanses of water-meadows. Near the place where the Oka flows into the Volga, near Nizhny Novgorod, it becomes deeper, coniferous forests and copses appear black on its banks. Main confluents are the Ugra, the Moskva, the Klyazma, the Moksha. Flood – since April till May in the head river, and till the beginning of June – in the lower reach; in autumn – rain flood. Freezing-over in the head river – since January till the end of March – April; in the lower reach – since December till the beginning of May. On the left bank in the middle stream – Prioksky preserve.
The Moscow – river
Waters of the Moscow-river, in which ancient towers of the Kremlin and spires of tall houses, rising to the sky, reflect, came into the capital from far away. These are the Volga water. The channel is as though a branch, an arm of the Volga, got to the walls of the Kremlin. The Moskow-river begins near villages Starkovo of Uvarovsk area. Its stream is now noisy and rapid, now slow, hardly perceptible. Lower its longest confluent – the Ruza, which admits about 30 small rivers, brooks, tiny brooks – flows into the Moscow-river.
Within the bounds of the capital the Moscow-river makes three huge loops and changes its direction almost twenty times. It admits here its confluent the Yauza. Along 60 km quays of the both rivers are dressed into granite. 300,000 sq. m! And how beautiful and unusual new bridges are!
The channel Moscow – the Volga
An idea to connect the Moscow and the Volga rivers emerges in 18 century. Most of all interests of trade required this. Building dragged on almost twenty years and was finished in 1844 because of lack of funds. The idea obtained “the second breath” at the beginning of 20 century. Necessity of its realization was connected mostly with improvement of the capital water-supply conditions. It was constructed for record short time. For four years and eight months a huge volume of works was carried out: 11 locks, 5 powerful pumping facilities, 8 earth dams, 3 reinforced-concrete dams, 8 hydroelectric power stations, 7 railway and 12 high road bridges, 2 tunnels and many other constructions were erected.
Significance of the channel is many-sided. Besides water supply of the capital and neighbouring areas, it serves as a source of additional feeding for the river. Sandy beaches alternate here with picturesque shady islets of forest. In hot days near water temperature of the air is two-three degrees lower than far from them. In lovely days here people go in for yachting, go boating, sail with catamarans.
The Vitegra river in Vologodskaya region of the Russian Federation flows out of the Matkozero. It flows in wide lowering between Andomskaya and Megorskaya hills, flows into the Ladoga. Length is 64 km, area of the basin is 1,670 sq. km. The Vitegra is regulated by numerous locks, being the main part of the Volga-Baltic water way. Average monthly flow quantity ranges from 11 to 23 cubic meters per second. Sometimes discharges from Kovzhskoe lake happens.
When they say the river Kama, Shishkin’s, Maksimov’s canvases, Meshkov’s lake “Expanses of the Kama”, where lilac hazes flow above water, being streaked with steel, and mighty firs rise along the riverside abrupt dene, occur.
The Kama is the fifth longest river of the European continent. The average length of the Kama is 2030 km. It collects water from the basin, the area of which makes up 522 thousand sq. km, which yield to France only a little. It abounds in forests and bogs, mountain springs and rivers, keeping moisture. The Kama admits more than 200 significant confluents and by fullness it can be a match for the Volga. Here are the largest of them: the Vishera, the Chusovaya, the Belaya, the Vyatka.
The nature of the Kama basin is various. Here there are slopes of the Ural ridge and ancient plateau and low valleys. Coniferous forests, resembling Siberian taiga, surround banks of the Kama in its head; oak-woods and rich verdure of lime-trees reflect in its waters in the low stream. Since ancient times the Kama was the main way of trade for peoples, populating its banks.
The Svir river flows out of the Onega, located at the level of 33 m, and flows into the Svirskaya bay of Ladoga lake, located at height of 4 m. Length of the river is 224 km. In the past rapids hinder navigation but after building of two waterworks facilities with powerful dams – Low Svir (1933) and Upper Svir (1951) – the river became quiet, deep, current is slow (3.4 km/h). In the low section, length of which is 81 km, the Svir remained in its former banks. Here speed of the current depends on discharge water through hydroelectric power station.
Ladoga lake is the largest one in Europe. Basin of the lake is of glacial origination. About 12 thousand years ago it freed oneself from ice once and for all. And not seals, which like its natural conditions, continue to live there. Large rivers – the Svir, the Vuoksa and the Volkhov – and several tens of middle rivers and more than hundreds small rivers carrytheir waters into the Ladoga. Only the Neva flows out of the lake.
The Ladoga is remarkable for wild disposition, but not always seized with gale-strength wind, intensification of wind in one part of the lake is often combined with quite calm weather in the other one. Calms are observed here more often in June, but during very short time.
Cruise by river is a voyage, allowing to admire riverside beauties, take the air, observe magnificence of the sunset from the ship or barge board. River cruises are especially popular:
From Moscow to the north to Saint-Petersburg. You can visit the places where tsars and emperors lived, Russian cities, full of fascination, small villages and two capitals: brilliant Moscow and great Saint-Petersburg. You will find yourself of the wonderful northern nature, in Valaam and Kizhi islands, visit the largest lake Sisyayarvi, Goritsa (Kirillo-Belozersky cloister), Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Uglitch, rich in unique monuments of ancient Russian history and architecture.
And from Moscow to the south to Nizhniy Novgorod. Motor ship routes lie on the rivers the Neva, the Svir, the Volga, the Volga-Baltic and Moscow channels, through picturesque Onega and Ladoga lakes.
Tour of “Rest-day”. We suggest you to make a three-day cruise in Uglitch, Tver or Esenin’s native land Konstantinovo. Here all breaths with history, legends. The motor ship starts the tour on Friday in the evening, and on Sunday in the evening you are already in Moscow. Make a short holiday at the end of the week.
Cruise “Moscow circumnavigation”
The route lies along the closed water circle. It begins from the South river-boat station of Moscow, runs on the Moscow-river and the Oka to Nizhniy Novgorod, then up-stream of the Volga to Ivankovskoe reservoir and by channel of Moscow – to the Northern river-boat station of the capital. On a way of route of the motor ship – ancient Dmitrov which has kept wonderful monuments of the Old Russian architecture, Yakhroma – a city, connected with the heroic defence of Moscow during the Great Patriotic war. There is also a route which begins in the Southern river-boat station.
Cruise “Solovki” Solovki and Solovetsky monastery – these two names are always cloaked in an aura of legend and mystery for us, legends about the fact that on a tiny archipelago, forsaken in the waters of the White sea, hard-working and belief of Russian associates made “The Eight miracle of the world”. You can boat on the lake of Bolshoi Solovetsky island, by the water system, made by monks at the end of XIX – at the beginning of XX centuries. During many centuries the cloister served as a place of imprisonment and exile. The walls of the cloister remember broken human faiths and sufferings.
Practical advices for tourists
Annulment of a cruise is made before departure for a voyage. In the case of delay and loss of documents, written out, cost of the cruise isn’t paid back.
It is recommended to come to the place for three hour before departure of the motor ship, boarding begins for two hours. Before departure of the vessel you should visit a general meeting, in which the captain will represent the whole crew and will give valuable advices.
Take warm clothes with you necessarily as on the deck it is sometimes colder than on the bank. Take convenient shoes and clothes for excursions. For visiting temples and monasteries women should put on skirts and head-dress, their clothes should cover their shoulders. It isn’t recommended for men to put on shorts and step-ins.