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Landscape

Unfortunately there are no highest mountains in the world on the territory of Russia, but there is something other. Russia takes place on the considerable part of the East-European and Siberian platforms. And there are the Chinese, African, Arabian and Indostan platforms near its south borders. The landscape on the territory of Russia differs by the variety, connected with the fact that the western part of Russia is quite lowered, and the eastern part is raised: the border between them stretches along the Enisei river. So, in the central part of Russia there are mostly high and low plains. The mountains are concentrated on its southern and nothern outskirts. High hills (and this is the Valdai Hill, the Middlerussian Hill, and others) alternate with lowlands Oksco Donskaya and Caspian lowlands. The plains occupy 34 of Russian territory. The West-Siberian plain begins behind the Ural mountains, the hight of which doesnt exceed 200 m. And the Middle Siberian plateau, which meets with the Central Yakut plain, stretches behind the rivers Lena and Enisei. Middle Siberian plateau is of the hight 500-800 m. above sea-level, the highest point is the Putorano plateau (1700 m.). The Siberian platform from the south is set off by the regions of the ancient (Baikal) rugosities, designated in the modern landscape as Baikal mountain country, Sayana, the Enisei mountain-ridge.

To the east from the Lena to Chukotka, and also in the Seaside, there are mountain-masses of the mesozoic rugosity (mountain ridges: the Chersky, the Verhoyansky, the Kolimsky plateau). The zone of new Kamchatka mountains with the highest active volcano of Eurasia the Kluchevskaya volcano (4750 m.) - and the Kuril Isls stretch along far eastern coast of the Pacific ocean. These are so called the Pacific ocean zone of rugosity, which also includes the Sahalin Isle and the Kuril Isls. The zone of the new mountains finishes on the Japan Isls, where the highest mountains, the peaks of which reaches 7,000 m and rise out of the depths of the sea, take place.

Many of them are under the water. But it doesnt hinder to form powerful volcano processes in this place, and this is connected with mobility of the litosphere plates: Pacific and Euroasian. Constant earthquakes and seaquakes are the results of this process. The bright example of it is Kamchatka, where hot springs functionate, including periodically gushing geysers, gas fault from the craters and clefts, which are the evidence of the active processes in the depth of the entrails of the earth, also can be seen.

On the territory of Russia there are several large regions with different landscape: mediohigh and low plains of the ancient East-European platform; young mountains of the Caucasus (now the foothills and the nothern slopes of the Caucasus, including the highect peak of the Europe Elbrus (5642 m.), are the parts of Russia); the low and mediohigh Ural mountains, stretching from the north to the south for 2.5 thousand km., and the New Land; low plains of the young platform of the West Siberia, which is borderd with the Altai mountains from the south-east; plateaus of the ancient high Siberian platform; the mountains of the south of Siberia (Altai mountains ( the Beluha mountain, 4,506 m.), the West and East Sayana, Kuznetzky Alatau, the mountains of Tuva, Baikal and others) and the Far East (the Chukchee and Koryaksky plateaus, tme mountains of Sihote-Alin). In spite of such great number of mountain peaks, the great part of Russian territory is occupied by wood zones, the total area of which is 75 billion m³ - this is the index of wood resources in the country, and it makes up 14 of the world woods.

The wood zone stretches by continuous belt from the west to the coast of the Pacific ocean and is concentrated in Siberia and the Far East. Now woodworking industry is well developed on the territory of the North Dvina, the Pechora, the Kama (European North). Despite Russia is the leader in the number of woods in the country it doesnt promote it to the 1st place in GNP in this direction, because a lot of wood are not used, losses while transporting of the wood are great. The situation with State timber purchasing is also unstable: systematic timber restoration works are not carried on. By the way woods are cut down along floatable rivers and routes, macadam and rail roads. As the result the Russians suffer from bad ecology.



     
 
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The Ural mountains are ones of the first mountains in the world.

 
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