When the Russian borders were closed for the Europeans, Americans and other peoples, everybody thought, that in Russia it snows the whole year, and the temperature doesn’t rise higher than 60 C on the whole territory of our government. Mass delusion appeared as the result of only one reason: foreign people on TV saw only our Russian caps with ear-flaps (ushanki) and fur shipskins to heels.
Russians couldn’t dethrone this delusion even after the disintegration of the USSR. Meanwhile it should be reminded that the climate on the whole territory of Russia is not the same. The territory of Russia takes place in the arctic and temperate zones, and only a small part of the Black sea-coast of the Caucasus is in the subtropical zone. Almost everywhere the climate is continental. Its degree increases from the west to the east because of weakening of the Atlantic ocean influence. In summer the wide territory of low pressure forms because of hard heating of the land surface on the great territory of Russia. At this time in the European part of the country western winds and in the north of the Asian part – northern winds predominate. In the Far East monsoon prevails. On the whole territory of Russia, except the Far North, summer is quite warm. At this time the great bulk of precipitation falls on the large part of the country. In the North-East European part of Russia the climate is transitional from sea to continental. It differs by the changeable weather, frequent cyclones, provoking thaw and ice-covering in winter. Winter is comparatively mild (- 7 C, - 10 C), and summer is short and cool (12-16 C). In the North-East European part of the country the climate is continental.
In winter the temperature falls to – 16 C, - 20 C, thaws are rare. The warm period lasts from May to August, in July the temperature reaches 18-20 C. The central region of the European part of Russia differs by temperately cold winter with frequent thaws and warm summer with returning of colds. The average temperature of January reaches - 10 C, - 15 C, and July – 18-20 C. In the south of the European part of the country summer is warm and arid with the temperature not lower than 20 C. In winter the temperature falls not lower than – 4 C, - 6 C.
The climate of the West Siberia forms mostly under the influence of air mass, coming from the Arctic. Massive cloudiness, strong winds and heavy snowfalls are observed because of frequent cyclones in the north. Winter lasts a long time. From November to March the temperature falls to -30 C, reaching – 50 C mainly in the Southern part of the West Siberia. Summer lasts about 3 months. The average temperature of July reaches 20-22 C, often provoking droughts, hot dry winds, and sometimes dusty storms.
In the East Siberia the climate is sharply continental. In winter it is hard freezing, the temperature reaches -60 C and lower. The average July temperature is 19 C. Monsoon climate is typical for the Far Siberia. Here winter is cold and scarcely snow, the clear weather prevails. Summer monsoon carries heavy rains and fogs especially in the Seaside and near the Amur. The average January temperature reaches -12 C, - 14 C, reaching here and there – 45 C in the internal regions. The average July temperature is 10-12 C.